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This article in SSSAJ

  1. Vol. 49 No. 6, p. 1387-1393
    Received: Feb 7, 1985
    Accepted: July 12, 1985

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Lanthanide Solid Phase Speciation1

  1. M. E. Essington and
  2. S. V. Mattigod2



The solid phase speciation of La, Ce, and Nd in the Ln2O3-CaO-SO4-PO4-F-O2-CO2-H2O (where Ln = La, Ce, and Nd) equilibrium system were evaluated using three-dimensional activity diagrams. Diagrams were constructed from thermodynamic data and interpreted with a knowledge of the ligands associated with La, Ce, and Nd in sewage sludge and sludge-amended soil particles as characterized by scanning electron microscopy. Throughout a wide range of equilibrium conditions at 298.15 K and 0.101 MPa, the activities of dissolved lanthanides were controlled by a small number of solid phases. These solids were cerianite [CeO2], lanthanite [La2(CO3)3·8H2O] and Nd-lanthanite [Nd2(CO3)3·8H2O], and La and Nd sulfates [(La,Nd)2(SO4)3·8H2O] in the presence of gypsum. In general, the stable lanthanide solid phases predicted from the thermochemical evaluation were consistent with those directly observed in chemically well-defined sewage sludge and sludge-amended soil; thus, illustrating the applicability of such an evaluation when applied to well characterized environments.

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