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This article in SSSAJ

  1. Vol. 55 No. 3, p. 693-698
     
    Received: June 2, 1989


    * Corresponding author(s):
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doi:10.2136/sssaj1991.03615995005500030009x

Kinetics of Sulfate Retention on Soil as Affected by Solution pH and Concentration

  1. R. R. Schnabel  and
  2. R. M. Potter
  1. USDA-ARS Northeast Watershed Research Center, University Park, PA 16802
    Greenhorne and O'Mara, Greenbelt, MD 20770

Abstract

Abstract

Knowledge of the time dependence of chemical retention by soil is crucial to a full understanding of how retention is affected by solution variables and to accurately simulate the fate of soil-applied chemicals. The kinetics of SO2-4 retention by and release from soil were examined in a continuously stirred reactor tank. The concentration-time histories were processed with a number of commonly used kinetic equations. Of those tested, an equation that was first order in available retention sites consistently gave the best fit to the data. Sulfate-retention kinetics were strongly influenced by SO2-4 concentration and the presence of PO3-4 in solution, but unaffected by a change in pH from 3 to 4. For example, when SO2-4 concentration was doubled from 0.313 to 0.625 mM in the retention phase of the experiment, the average first-order forward rate constant increased from 0.07 to 0.24 min−1. The addition of PO3-4 to the solution increased the forward rate constant to 0.13 min−1 and decreased equilibrium retention from 8.1 mmol/kg when PO3-4 was not present to 5.2 mmol/kg. In the release phase of the experiment, the presence of PO3-4 increased the estimated reverse rate constants by an order of magnitude, and an even greater increase in the reverse rate constant was estimated when the initial sulfate concentration was increased from 0.313 to 0.625 mM. Although the data was closely approximated by first-order kinetics, changes in the rate coefficients for the different influent solutions indicate that commonly determined kinetic parameters have limited applicability beyond the particular conditions of the experiment.

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