Runoff and Interrill Erosion in Sodic Soils Treated with Dry PAM and Phosphogypsum
- Z. Tanga,
- T. Leia,
- J. Yub,
- I. Shainbergc,
- A. I. Mamedovd,
- M. Ben-Hurc and
- G. J. Levy *c
- a College of Water Conservancy and Civil Engineering, China Agricultural Univ., Qinghua Donglu Rd, Beijing, 100083, PR China
b Institute of Water Resources, Huhhot, Inner Mongolia, PR China
c Institute of Soil, Water and Environmental Sciences, Agricultural Research Organization (ARO), The Volcani Center, P.O. Box 6, Bet Dagan 50-250, Israel
d National Soil Erosion Research Lab., USDA-ARS-MWA; 275 South Russell St., West Lafayette, IN 47907 USA
Seal formation at the soil surface during rainstorms reduces rain infiltration and leads to runoff and erosion. An increase in soil sodicity increases soil susceptibility to crusting, runoff, and erosion. Surface application of dissolved polyacrylamide (PAM) mixed with gypsum was found to be very effective in decreasing seal formation, runoff, and erosion. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of surface application of dry granular PAM (20 kg ha−1) mixed with phosphogypsum (PG) (2 and 4 Mg ha−1) and that of PG alone on the infiltration rate (IR), runoff, and wash erosion from four smectitic soil types (ranging in clay content between 10 and 62% and sodicity level between exchangeable sodium percentage [ESP] 2 and 20) exposed to simulated distilled water rainstorms. Increasing ESP from 5 to 20 in the loamy sand decreased final IR from 14 to 2 mm h−1 and increased runoff and wash erosion in the control; similar trends but of different magnitude were noted in the other soil types. Spreading PAM mixed with PG or PG alone was effective in maintaining final IR > 12 mm h−1, low runoff, and wash erosion levels compared with their control. Use of PAM mixed with PG resulted in higher final IR and lower runoff levels than PG alone in all four soils studied. Conversely, with respect to soil erosion, PAM mixed with PG was more effective than PG alone in reducing wash erosion from the loamy sand and clay and had comparable effects on soil loss in the loam. It was concluded that for rain-fed agriculture, spreading of dry granular PAM mixed with PG was more effective than PG alone in reducing runoff and erosion in soils varying in texture and sodic conditions.Please view the pdf by using the Full Text (PDF) link under 'View' to the left.
Copyright © 2006.