Long-Term Evaluation of Manure Application on Maize Yield and Nitrogen Use Efficiency in China
- Yinghua Duana,
- Minggang Xu *a,
- Bairen Wanga,
- Xueyun Yangb,
- Shaomin Huangc and
- Suduan Gaod
- a Key Lab. of Crop Nutrition and Fertilization, Ministry of Agriculture of China, Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, China 100081
b College of Resource and Environment, Northwest Sci-Tech Univ. of Agriculture and Forestry, Yangling, Shaanxi, China 712100
c Institute of Plant Nutrition and Agricultural Resources, Henan Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Zhengzhou, Henan, China 450002
d USDA-ARS, Water Management Research, Parlier, CA 93648-9757
Improving N use efficiency (NUE) and reducing the negative impact of N fertilization on the environment are essential for sustaining agricultural production in many intensive farming regions around the world. The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of various fertilization regimes on yield, N uptake, and NUE by maize (Zea mays L.) in long-term (15-yr) experiments performed at four sites (Changping, Zhengzhou, Yangling, and Qiyang) in China. Eight treatments were examined: unfertilized control (CK); inorganic fertilizer (manufactured source) N, N and P, N and K, and N, P, and K; inorganic N, P, and K with manure (NPKM); 1.5´ the rate of NPKM (1.5NPKM); and N, P, and K with maize stover returned (NPKS). Compared with inorganic fertilization, mixed inorganic and manure fertilization (NPKM and 1.5NPKM) resulted in more stable and significantly higher yield and NUE as well as increases in soil nutrient storage at all sites, with the most significant improvement in the acid soil (pH = 5.7) at Qiyang. Phosphorous was identified as one of the most important limiting factors in maize NUE because the NUE at all four sites increased from about 20 to 45% by increasing the available P in the soil. Higher NUEs (up to 70%) were observed mostly from the continuous manure applications. We conclude that manure and P applications are the most important and effective nutrient management strategies for both the acid and alkaline soils in this study for maize production in China.Please view the pdf by using the Full Text (PDF) link under 'View' to the left.
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