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This article in SSSAJ

  1. Vol. 76 No. 6, p. 2297-2306
     
    Received: Apr 30, 2012
    Published: November 16, 2012


    * Corresponding author(s): gok203@mail.usask.ca
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doi:10.2136/sssaj2012.0146

Spatial Distribution and Chemical Speciation of Soil Phosphorus in a Band Application

  1. Gourango Kar *a,
  2. Derek Peaka and
  3. Jeff J. Schoenaua
  1. a Dep. of Soil Science College of Agriculture and Bioresources Univ. of Saskatchewan 51 Campus Drive Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5A8 Canada

Abstract

There is limited information on how manure and inorganic fertilizer application in a concentrated band impacts the solubility, mobility, and transformation of the phosphate compounds in Canadian prairie soils. A combination of resin membrane probes, sequential chemical extraction, and synchrotron based techniques were used to reveal the spatial distribution and chemical speciation of soil phosphorus (P) when inorganic fertilizer P or manure is placed in the soil in a band under field conditions. This study was performed at Central Butte and Dixon, SK, Canada. Monoammonium phosphate blended with urea was applied at a rate of 54 kg N ha−1 and 12 kg P ha−1 at Central Butte (Brown Chernozem) and solid cattle manure was applied at rate of 60 t ha−1 yr−1 at Dixon (Black Chernozem). Fertilizer application increased the total and labile P supply at the center of the band and was mainly confined to a relatively small area within about 5 cm of band regardless of slope position. The X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy directly identified different forms of soil P, while chemical extraction results provided indirect support that there are differences in the forms of P in the band center as related to in the landscape position and fertilization type. The XANES analysis results showed that different P retention mechanisms take place depending on both landscape position and fertilizer type. For the inorganic fertilizer application made in calcareous upslope positions, a significant amount of apatite and adsorbed P species were observed at center and near-band and only apatite was present at large distances from the band; adsorbed P species dominated at all distances from the band at downslope positions. The solid cattle manure applied soil contained dicalcium phosphate (DCP) and organic P at center and near-band at both slope positions but adsorbed P and calcium phosphate further away at upslope positions and adsorbed P further away at downslope positions. The XANES results also indicated that the movement of organic P was limited as this species was always localized near the band.

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Copyright © 2012. Copyright © by the Soil Science Society of America, Inc.