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Soil profile characteristics at the W.K. Kellogg Biological Station Long-Term Ecological Research (KBS LTER) site. The dominant KBS soil series are Kalamazoo (fine-loamy, semiactive, mixed, mesic Typic Hapludalfs) and Oshtemo (coarse-loamy, active, mixed, mesic Typic Hapludalfs) series. Data are from Crum and Collins (1995)

 
Horizon Depth Texture Bulk Density pH†
Sand Silt Clay
cm % Mg m−3
Kalamazoo Series
Ap 0–30 43 38 19 1.6 5.5
E 30–41 39 41 20 1.7 5.7
Bt1 41–69 48 23 29 1.8 5.3
2Bt2 69–88 79 4 17 nd‡ 5.2
2E/Bt 88–152 93 0 7 nd 5.6
Oshtemo Series
Ap 0–25 59 27 14 1.6 5.7
E 25–41 64 22 14 1.7 5.7
Bt1 41–57 67 13 20 1.8 5.8
2Bt2 57–97 83 4 13 nd 5.8
2E/Bt 97–152 92 0 8 nd 6.0
Measured with a soil/water ratio of 15 g field moist soil to 30 mL deionized water.
nd = not determined.



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Management summaries for cropping systems and successional communities at the Kellogg Biological Station Long-Term Ecological Research Site.

 
Replicates Tillage Nitrogen fertilizer† Weed control
Annual crops (corn-soybean-wheat rotation)
Conventional 6 Conventional Conventional Chemical (Conventional Rate) and mechanical
No-Till 6 None Conventional Chemical (Conventional Rate)
Reduced Input 6 Conventional 1/3 Conventional with cover crop Chemical (1/3 Conventional Rate) and mechanical
Organic 6 Conventional Cover crop Mechanical
Perennial crops
Alfalfa 6 None None None
Poplar 6 None Starter None
Unmanaged communities
Early Successional 6 None None None
Mid-Successional (HT) § 3 None None None
Mid-Successional (NT) § 4 None None None
Deciduous Forest 3 None None None
Conventional refers to the recommended rate based on soil testing and best management practices.
60 kg N ha−1 in 1989 only.
§ HT = historically tilled, NT = never tilled.



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Cropping system and successional community effects on soil horizon thickness and bulk density to a 100-cm soil depth at the Kellogg Biological Station Long-Term Ecological Research site. Results are shown as mean (standard error). Replication is n = 6 plots for annual crops, alfalfa (Medicago sativa), poplar (Populus × euramericana), and early successional communities; n = 4 mid-successional never-tilled (NT) sites, and n = 3 sites for the mid-successional historically tilled (HT) communities and deciduous forest.

 
A/Ap B/Bt Bt2/C
Thickness Bulk Density Thickness Bulk Density Thickness to 1 m Bulk Density
cm g cm−3 cm g cm−3 cm g cm−3
Annual crops (corn-soybean-wheat rotation)
Conventional 19.9 (2.30)ab† 1.6 (0.05)a 35.8 (3.85)ab 1.7 (0.05)ab 43.0 (2.31)a 1.6 (0.03)a
No-till 20.0 (0.97)ab 1.5 (0.05)a 35.8 (1.99)ab 1.6 (0.03)b 41.3 (1.86)a 1.6 (0.03)a
Reduced Input 21.6 (1.43)a 1.5 (0.02)a 36.2 (3.24)ab 1.6 (0.03)b 40.1 (2.76)a 1.7 (0.03)b
Organic 19.5 (1.43)ab 1.5 (0.04)a 36.7 (3.43)ab 1.6 (0.04)ab 41.6 (2.41)a 1.6 (0.04)ab
Perennial crops
Alfalfa 21.2 (1.97)ab 1.5 (0.04)ab 35.9 (2.44)ab 1.7 (0.05)ab 40.5 (3.34)a 1.6 (0.05)ab
Poplar 21.3 (2.65)ab 1.4 (0.05)ab 30.0 (2.21)b 1.7 (0.03)ab 46.1 (3.95)a 1.7 (0.03)b
Successional communities
Early Succession 22.3 (1.67)a 1.5 (0.03)ab 35.8 (3.39)ab 1.6 (0.04)bc 41.1 (2.19)a 1.6 (0.03)a
Mid- Successional (HT) 20.8 (2.21)ab 1.5 (0.04)ab 33.2 (3.86)ab 1.8 (0.09)a 38.9 (6.54)a 1.7 (0.01)b
Mid- Successional (NT) 14.2 (0.20)c 1.2 (0.03)c 35.0 (1.06)a 1.6 (0.02)b 47.9 (2.80)a 1.5 (0.02)c
Deciduous Forest 16.9 (1.25)b 1.3 (0.02)b 40.0 (4.26)a 1.7 (0.08)ab 40.6 (4.13)a 1.7 (0.02)b
Systems with different lowercase letters within columns are significantly different (p ≤ 0.05).



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Cropping system and successional community effects on soil carbon concentrations (g C kg soil−1) and pools (kg C m−2) to a 100-cm soil depth at the Kellogg Biological Station Long-Term Ecological Research site in 2001. Results are shown as mean (standard error). Replication is n = 6 plots for annual crops, alfalfa (Medicago sativa), poplar (Populus × euramericana), and early successional communities; n = 4 mid-successional never-tilled (NT) sites, and n = 3 sites for the mid-successional historically tilled (HT) communities and deciduous forest. Systems with different lowercase letters within columns are significantly different (p ≤ 0.05).

 
A/Ap B/Bt Bt2/C Total
g C kg soil−1 kg C m−2 g C kg soil−1 kg C m−2 g C kg soil−1 kg C m−2 to 1 m kg C m−2 to 1 m
Annual crops (corn-soybean-wheat rotation)
Conventional 10.4 (0.3)a 3.2 (0.1)a 4.2 (0.7)abc 2.4 (0.4)abc 1.8 (0.2)a 1.2 (0.2)a 6.9 (0.6)ab
No-till 11.5 (0.4)b 3.6 (0.1)b 4.4 (0.5)ab 2.5 (0.3)ab 3.5 (1.4)ab 2.4 (0.9)ab 8.5 (0.9)ac
Reduced Input 11.1 (1.2)ab 3.5 (0.4)ab 3.5 (0.5)bc 2.0 (0.3)bc 1.5 (0.3)ab 1.0 (0.2)ab 6.5 (0.8)a
Organic 12.2 (0.4)b 3.8 (0.1)b 4.6 (0.5)ab 2.7 (0.3)ab 2.7 (0.9)a 1.9 (0.6)a 8.3 (0.8)ac
Perennial crops
Alfalfa 11.6 (0.1)b 3.6 (0.3)ab 4.5 (0.7)ab 2.6 (0.4)ab 6.0 (2.2)a 4.1 (1.6)a 10.4 (1.5)bc
Poplar 9.8 (1.6)b 3.0 (0.5)ab 3.9 (0.9)abc 2.3 (0.5)abc 5.2 (2.3)ab 3.6 (1.5)ab 8.9 (0.8)bc
Successional communities
Early Successional 14.3 (0.5)c 4.5 (0.1)c 4.8 (0.3)a 2.8 (0.2)a 1.9 (0.2)a 1.3 (0.2)a 8.6 (0.3)c
Mid-Success. (HT) 12.7 (2.9)ab 3.9 (0.9)abcd 2.6 (0.6)c 1.5 (0.4)c 0.9 (0.1)bc 0.6 (0.1)bc 6.1 (1.3)a
Mid-Success. (NT) 29.5 (1.1)d 5.7 (0.2)d 4.3 (0.4)ab 2.6 (0.3)ab 1.7 (0.4)a 1.2 (0.3)a 9.6 (0.7)c
Deciduous Forest 24.0 (3.4)d 4.7 (0.7)bcd 4.0 (1.0)abc 2.5 (0.6)abc 1.3 (0.4)abc 0.9 (0.3)abc 8.1 (1.5)ac
Systems with different lowercase letters within columns are significantly different (p ≤ 0.05).



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Cropping system and successional community effects on coefficients of variation (CVs) of C concentrations and C pools to a 100-cm soil depth at the Kellogg Biological Station Long-Term Ecological Research site in 2001.

 
Coefficients of Variation (CV)
A/Ap B/Bt Bt2/C Total
Replicates g C kg soil−1 kg C m−2 g C kg soil−1 kg C m−2 g C kg soil−1 kg C m−2 kg C m−2 to 1 m
Annual crops (corn-soybean-wheat rotation)
Conventional 6 0.07 0.08 0.41 0.41 0.27 0.41 0.21
No-till 6 0.09 0.07 0.28 0.29 0.98 0.92 0.26
Reduced Input 6 0.26 0.28 0.35 0.37 0.49 0.49 0.30
Organic 6 0.08 0.06 0.27 0.27 0.82 0.77 0.24
Perennial Crops
Alfalfa 6 0.02 0.20 0.38 0.38 0.90 0.96 0.35
Poplar 6 0.40 0.41 0.57 0.53 1.08 1.02 0.22
Successional communities
Early Successional 6 0.09 0.05 0.15 0.17 0.26 0.38 0.09
Mid-Success. (HT)† 3 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.46 0.19 0.29 0.37
Mid-Success. (NT) † 4 0.07 0.07 0.19 0.23 0.47 0.50 0.15
Deciduous Forest 3 0.25 0.26 0.43 0.42 0.53 0.58 0.32
HT = historically tilled, NT = never tilled.
Systems with different lowercase letters within columns are significantly different (p ≤ 0.05).



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Cropping system and successional community effects on soil N concentrations and C/N ratios to a 100-cm soil depth at the Kellogg Biological Station Long-Term Ecological Research site in 2001. Results are shown as mean (standard error). Replication is n = 6 plots for annual crops, alfalfa (Medicago sativa), poplar (Populus × euramericana), and early successional communities; n = 4 mid-successional never-tilled (NT) sites, and n = 3 sites for the mid-successional historically tilled (HT) communities and deciduous forest.

 
A/Ap B/Bt Bt2/C
g N kg soil−1 C/N ratio g N kg soil−1 C/N ratio g N kg soil−1 C/N ratio
Annual crops (corn-soybean-wheat rotation)
Conventional 1.12 (0.05) ab† 9.44 (0.37) a 0.64 (0.09) abd 6.66 (0.51) a 0.41 (0.07) abc 5.52 (1.02) abc
No-till 1.21 (0.02) ac 9.57 (0.32) a 0.67 (0.02) b 6.87 (0.65) abc 0.39 (0.04) abc 13.15 (5.16) abc
Reduced Input 1.24 (0.06) abc 10.14 (0.47) ab 0.60 (0.06) bcd 7.51 (1.03) abc 0.36 (0.05) ab 6.70 (2.06) ab
Organic 1.17 (0.06) ac 10.59 (0.42) b 0.55 (0.05) acd 9.10 (1.14) bc 0.32 (0.03) ad 11.52 (2.61) ad
Perennial crops
Alfalfa 1.35 (0.04) bc 9.40 (0.17) a 0.73 (0.06) b 6.95 (0.35) a 0.47 (0.06) bc 9.10 (2.96) b
Poplar 1.17 (0.07) ac 10.75 (0.32) bc 0.63 (0.06) bcd 8.19 (0.69) ab 0.35 (0.03) a 6.39 (0.63) ab
Successional communities
Early Successional 1.30 (0.05) c 11.04 (0.10) c 0.59 (0.03) d 8.45 (0.36) bc 0.32 (0.02) abe 8.21 (1.06) acd
Mid-Success. (HT) 1.36 (0.17) ac 11.51 (0.96) cd 0.45 (0.04) a 8.83 (1.89) c 0.24 (0.03) ce 10.35 (5.11) de
Mid-Success. (NT) 2.48 (0.16) d 11.92 (0.42) d 0.72 (0.05) b 6.43 (0.29) a 0.53 (0.06) c 4.46 (0.84) c
Deciduous Forest 2.05 (0.19) d 12.42 (0.41) d 0.50 (0.10) abd 10.73 (2.33) abc 0.31 (0.03) abe 7.98 (2.57) ad
Systems with different lowercase letters within columns are significantly different (p ≤ 0.05).



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 7.

Cropping system and successional community effects on soil carbon sequestration to 100 cm soil depth at the Kellogg Biological Station Long-Term Ecological Research site in 2001. Results are shown as mean difference from the conventional system, standard error.

 
Replicates Time since establishment Soil C sequestration in A/Ap Horizon Soil C sequestration to 1 m
yr kg C m−2
Annual crops (corn-soybean-wheat rotation)
Conventional 6 12 0.0 (0.1) a § 0.0 (0.6) ab
No-till 6 12 0.4 (0.1) b 1.6 (0.9) ac
Reduced Input 6 12 0.3 (0.4) ab −0.4 (0.8) a
Organic 6 12 0.6 (0.1) b 1.4 (0.8) ac
Perennial crops
Alfalfa 6 12 0.4 (0.3) ab 3.5 (1.5) bc
Poplar 6 12 −0.2 (0.5) ab 2.0 (0.8) bc
Successional communities
Early Successional 6 12 1.3 (0.1) c 1.7 (0.3) c
Mid-Success. (HT)† 3 51 0.7 (0.9) abcd −0.6 (1.3) a
Mid-Success. (NT) † 4 51 2.5 (0.2) d 2.7 (0.7) c
Deciduous Forest 3 n/a 1.5 (0.7) bcd 1.2 (1.5) ac
HT = historically tilled, NT = never tilled
Deciduous forest is the native system and these sites have never been harvested. is never tilled.
§ Systems with different lowercase letters within columns are significantly different (p ≤ 0.05).