Sustainable use of soil resources can be assessed from management-induced changes in soil properties from long-term experiments. Such data are scanty, especially with regard to changes in soil physical properties. Therefore, soil physical and chemical analyses were performed 28 yr after initiating a crop rotation-tillage experiment on a well-drained Wooster silt loam soil (fine-loamy, mixed, mesic Typic Fragiudalf) at Wooster, OH. All combinations of three rotations (continuous corn [CC; Zea mays L.]; corn and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] in a 2-yr rotation [CS]; and corn, oat [Avena sativa L.], and meadow in a 3-yr rotation [COM]) and of three tillage treatments (no-tillage [NT]; chisel plow [CP]; and moldboard plow [MP]) were maintained on the same plots for the entire length of study. All crops were grown every year. Soil properties studied for the 0- to 15-cm layer were: structural stability of aggregates, bulk density, total porosity, penetration resistance, organic C, pH, cation-exchange capacity (CEC), and exchangeable K, Ca and Mg. Mean bulk densities measured prior to tillage treatments and planting were 1.18, 1.24, and 1.28 Mg m−3 for CC, CS, and COM rotations, respectively. The lowest bulk density was observed for the CC-NT combination. Total aggregation in CS was 26.9% greater than CC and 111.2% greater than COM. With tillage treatments, aggregation was in the order of NT>CP>MP. Rotation treatments had no effect on aggregate size. In accord with bulk density, the relative magnitude of organic C content was 100, 85, and 63 for CC, CS, and COM rotations, respectively.