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This article in TPG

  1. Vol. 2 No. 3, p. 233-246
    unlockOPEN ACCESS
     
    Received: May 2, 2009
    Accepted: Nov 5, 2009


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doi:10.3835/plantgenome2009.05.0015

Karyotypic Evolution of the Common and Silverleaf Sunflower Genomes

  1. Adam F. Heesacker,
  2. Eleni Bachlava,
  3. Robert L. Brunick,
  4. John M. Burke,
  5. Loren H. Rieseberg and
  6. Steven J. Knapp 
  1. A.F. Heesacker, E. Bachlava, and S.J. Knapp, Institute for Plant Breeding, Genetics, and Genomics, The Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602; R.L. Brunick, Dep. of Crop and Soil Science, Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR 97331; J.M. Burke, Dep. of Plant Biology, The Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602; L.H. Rieseberg, Dep. of Botany, The Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada, and Dep. of Biology, Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN 47405.

Abstract

Silverleaf sunflower (Helianthus argophyllus Torrey and Gray) has been an important source of favorable alleles for broadening genetic diversity and enhancing agriculturally important traits in common sunflower (H. annuus L.), and, as the closest living relative of H. annuus, provides an excellent model for understanding how apparently maladaptive chromosomal rearrangements became established in this genus. The genomes of H. annuus and H. argophyllus were comparatively mapped to identify syntenic and rearranged chromosomes and develop genomic blueprints for predicting the impact of chromosomal rearrangements on interspecific gene flow. Syntenic chromosomal segments were identified and aligned using 131 orthologous DNA marker loci distributed throughout the H. annuus genome (299 DNA marker loci were mapped in H. argophyllus). We identified 28 colinear chromosomal segments, 10 colinear chromosomes, and seven chromosomal rearrangements (five non-reciprocal translocations and two inversions). Four H. argophyllus chromosomes carrying non-reciprocal translocations apparently arose from the duplication of two chromosomes, and three H. argophyllus chromosomes apparently arose from end-to-end or end-to-opposite-end fusions of chromosomes or chromosome segments. Chromosome duplication may reduce the initial fitness costs of chromosomal rearrangements, thereby facilitating their establishment. Despite dramatic differences in chromosome architecture, a significant fraction of the H. argophyllus genome appears to be accessible for introgression into H. annuus.

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