A. Left: Sequence of the real process through which imputation methods would be used in association studies, from the selection of a reference panel through the use of imputed marker scores in association studies. Right: Parallel view of the simulation process used to verify that this approach might be fruitful. The conceptual experimental population in which imputation would be performed is in beige with the reference panel selected from it in red. Key common steps between real and simulation processes are highlighted in blue. Simulation steps that allow verification of imputation accuracy are in green. Steps in the real process that would benefit from further research are in red. B. Illustration of a small portion of the structure of reference and experimental panels for the imputation of markers that have not been scored on experimental lines. Markers (S01 to S17) are in columns and barley lines in rows. Markers in gray have not been scored in the experimental panel (denoted by line names “Exp_##”) and will be imputed on the basis of information in the reference panel (denoted by line names “Ref_##”) and on tag marker (S01, 03, 05, 09, 12, and 15) data in the experimental panel.