Figure 1.
Figure 1.

Alignment of linkage groups (LGs) from diploid (A) and hexaploid (B) Avena spp. linkage maps to the Brachypodium distachyon genome. Pairs of orthologous loci were grouped together to reveal syntenic blocks that are displayed as ribbons joining the genomes. Brachypodium distachyon chromosomes are blue and diploid and hexaploid (‘Kanota’ × ‘Ogle’) Avena LGs are red and green, respectively. Because of the significantly smaller B. distachyon genome with respect to the Avena LGs, its relative size was increased 10-fold (A) or 20-fold (B). Distances are either in megabase pairs or centimorgans.

 


Figure 2.
Figure 2.

A through G: Simultaneous alignment of individual diploid linkage groups (LGs) and postulated homologous hexaploid Avena spp. LG segments using Brachypodium distachyon as an anchor genome. Circular representations are ordered by diploid Avena LGs. Brachypodium distachyon chromosomes are blue and diploid or hexaploid Avena LGs are red and green, respectively. Because of the significantly smaller B. distachyon genome compared to the Avena LGs, its relative size was increased 10-fold. Distances are either in megabase pairs or centimorgans. H: Ungrouped individual orthologous alignments of E; I: detail of H magnified 2x.

 


Figure 3.
Figure 3.

Evolutionary model of chromosome structure in the subtribe Aveninae and comparison to that in Triticeae from previously proposed ancestral chromosomes. Schematic adapted from IBI, 2010, and first described in Salse et al., 2008. Color code and nomenclature according to Salse et al., 2009; white indicates no clear inference. MYA, million years ago.

 


Figure 4.
Figure 4.

Proposed ‘Kanota’ × ‘Ogle’ map homeology through alignment to the Brachypodium distachyon genome. Pairs of orthologous loci were grouped together according to the criteria described in Materials and Methods. Brachypodium distachyon chromosomes are blue and Avena spp. linkage groups (LGs) are green. Proposed homeologous blocks are colored versus light gray of nonhomeologous blocks in the same LGs. Because of the significantly smaller B. distachyon genome compared to their Avena LGs, the relative size of the former was increased 10-fold. H: Individual ungrouped orthologous alignments of E; I: 2x magnification of H.

 


Figure 5.
Figure 5.

Homologous relationships between ‘Kanota’ × ‘Ogle’ (K×O) and ‘Ogle’ × ‘TAM O-301’ (O×T) Avena linkage groups (LGs) inferred from alignment to Brachypodium distachyon genome. Brachypodium distachyon chromosomes are blue and K×O and O×T LGs are green and purple, respectively. Because of the significantly smaller B. distachyon genome compared to the Avena LGs, the relative size of the former was increased 10-fold.