Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

The expression of N assimilation genes during the flowering and berry development periods in grapevine. Fertilizer treatments 1 to 10 (FE-1 to FE-10) denote 10 sampling stages every 6 d from 4 May to 30 June (FE-1–FE-2: flowering stage, FE-3–FE-4: first berry expansion stage, FE-5–FE-6: seed stone hardening stage, FE-7–FE-8: second berry expansion stage, FE9–FE10: veraison stage). Each reaction was repeated three times and the template amount was expressed relative to Actin. Grapevine samples were derived from the Summer Black cultivar.

 


Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

The expression of P uptake genes during the flowering and berry development periods in grapevine. Fertilizer treatments 1 to 10 (FE-1 to FE-10) denote 10 sampling stages every 6 d from 4 May to 30 June (FE-1–FE-2: flowering stage, FE-3–FE-4: first berry expansion stage, FE-5–FE-6: seed stone hardening stage, FE-7–FE-8: second berry expansion stage, FE9–FE10: veraison stage). Each reaction was repeated three times and the template amount was expressed relative to Actin. Grapevine samples were derived from the Summer Black cultivar.

 


Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

The expression of K uptake genes during the flowering and berry development periods in grapevine. Fertilizer treatments 1 to 10 (FE-1 to FE-10) denote 10 sampling stages every 6 d from 4 May to 30 June (FE-1–FE-2: flowering stage, FE-3–FE-4: first berry expansion stage, FE-5–FE-6: seed stone hardening stage, FE-7–FE-8: second berry expansion stage, FE9–FE10: veraison stage). Each reaction was repeated three times and the template amount was expressed relative to Actin. Grapevine samples were derived from the Summer Black cultivar.

 


Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Comparison of expression levels of N metabolism genes between fertilized grapevine and the control. Fertilizer treatments 1 to 10 (FE-1 to FE-10) denote 10 fertilization stages; 1to 3 denote three sampling times every 3 d after fertilization. Each reaction was repeated three times and the template amount was expressed relative to Actin. Grapevine samples were derived from the Summer Black cultivar. The expression levels of the fertilizer-treated samples are expressed as a ratio relative to their corresponding controls, which were set to 1 and are shown in the column labeled CK. *, Significant difference at the 0.05 level; **, significant difference at the 0.01 level; ***, significant difference at the 0.001 level.

 


Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Comparison of expression levels of P uptake genes between the fertilized grapevine and the control. Fertilizer treatments 1 to 10 (FE-1 to FE-10) denote 10 fertilization stages; 1 to 3 denote three sampling times every 3 d after fertilization. Each reaction was repeated three times and the template amount was expressed relative to Actin. Grapevine samples were derived from the ‘Summer Black’ cultivar. The expression levels of the fertilizer-treated samples are expressed as a ratio relative to their corresponding controls, which were set to 1 and are shown in the column labeled CK. *, significant difference at the 0.05 level; **, significant difference at the 0.01 level; ***, significant difference at the 0.001 level.

 


Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Comparison of the expression levels of K uptake genes between the fertilized grapevine and the control. Fertilizer treatments 1 to 10 (FE-1 to FE-10) denote 10 fertilization stages; 1 to 3 denote three sampling times every 3 d after fertilization. Each reaction was repeated three times and the template amount was expressed relative to Actin. Grapevine samples were derived from the Summer Black cultivar. The expression levels of the fertilizer-treated samples are expressed as a ratio relative to their corresponding controls, which were set to 1 and are shown in the column labeled CK. *, significant difference at the 0.05 level; **, significant difference at the 0.01 level; ***, significant difference at the 0.001 level.

 


Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

The change in single berry weight, cluster weight, soluble solid content, and total sugar content of grapevines under fertilization treatments at various stages, FE-1 to FE-10 denote the 10 fertilization date shown in Table 1. Grapevine samples were derived from the Summer Black cultivar. Note: Different letters mean a significant difference at the 5% level.

 


Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Key stages in grapevine flower and berry development and diagrammatic representation of genes which were highly expressed in fertilized grapevines compared to the control in various stages. Upward pointing arrows: genes that were highly expressed compared to the control; blue ovals, N assimilation genes; green ovals, P uptake genes; red ovals, K uptake genes. N, P, and K: the nutrient types needed by grapevine. FE-1 to FE-10: fertilization times as shown in Table 1. Grapevine samples were derived from the Summer Black cultivar.