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Geographic positions, soil properties, and management conditions for seven experimental locations.

 
Location Position Soil Management
Flevo polder S Netherlands Loam Small plots
Les Alleuds W France Loam Small plots
Rennes NW France Light clay Conservation management (4–5 cuts per year)
Didbrook S England Clay and stony First year: conservation management (5 cuts); Second year: simulated grazing (7–9 cuts)
Store Heddinge SE Denmark Clay Conservation management (4–5 cuts per year); plus seed yield plots



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For all traits or set, number of phenotyped families, number of locations, environments (location × year interactions) and scores, mean, standard deviation (SD), minimum and maximum values.

 
Trait and set No. families No. locations No. location × year interactions No. scores Mean SD Min. value Max. value
Crown rust resistance
 F2 families 1790 5 24 49 5.35 1.85 1 9
 Synthetic families 66 5 10 22 5.64 1.53 1 9
Seed yield
 F2 families 1646 1 3 138.66 34.26 16.80 288.47
 Synthetic families 80 1 3 146.64 30.38 71.53 216.87
1000-kernel weight
 F2 families 1028 1 2 2.13 0.34 0.90 3.25
 Synthetic families 0
Neutral detergent fiber
 F2 families 1102 1 2 53.55 4.25 39.77 63.77
 Synthetic families 16 1 1 51.12 2.48 46.69 55.29
Fructan
 F2 families 1544 1 3 7.63 4.07 0.35 29.42
 Synthetic families 32 1 2 4.87 2.90 1.93 14.95



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Phenotypic variance (σ2P) of F2 families and narrow-sense heritability (h2) across environment and scores (with SE) for all traits.

 
Trait σ2P h2n
Crown rust resistance 1.914 (0.18) 0.27 (0.02)
Seed yield 477.2 (58.3) 0.42 (0.05)
1000-kernel weight 0.053 (0.01) 0.47 (0.14)
Neutral detergent fiber 10.68 (1.24) 0.54 (0.07)
Fructan 5.648 (0.58) 0.40 (0.06)



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For all traits and models, predictive ability (ρӯf;ĝ), accuracy (ρg;ĝ), and bias (with SE), for the k-fold and pp-fold cross-validation, and for the prediction of synthetic (SYN) families.

 
Trait and model† k-fold
pp-fold
F2 → SYN2
ρӯf;ĝ ρg;ĝ Bias (SE) ρӯf;ĝ ρg;ĝ Bias (SE) ρӯf;ĝ ρg;ĝ Bias (SE)
Crown rust resistance
 GE 0.58 0.68 1.18 (0.04) 0.45 0.53 1.38 (0.07) 0.54 0.68 0.90 (0.17)
 GP*** 0.57 0.69 1.27 (0.04) 0.46*** 0.56 1.47 (0.07) 0.48 0.61 0.96 (0.21)
Seed yield
 GE 0.56 0.73 1.12 (0.04) 0.48 0.63 1.13 (0.05) 0.46 0.50 0.87 (0.22)
 GP*** 0.58** 0.75 1.09 (0.04) 0.48 0.62 1.17 (0.05) 0.45 0.49 0.83 (0.19)
1000-kernal weight
 GE 0.37 0.51 1.06 (0.08) 0.31 0.42 1.16 (0.11)
 GP** 0.44* 0.65 0.99 (0.06) 0.37*** 0.54 1.68 (0.13)
Neutral detergent fiber
 GE 0.56 0.69 1.13 (0.05) 0.48 0.59 1.33 (0.07)
 GP*** 0.68*** 0.81 1.02 (0.03) 0.56* 0.68 1.70 (0.08)
Fructan
 GE 0.37 0.50 1.05 (0.07) 0.27 0.36 0.99 (0.09) 0.48 0.53 1.62 (0.54)
 GP*** 0.45*** 0.60 0.99 (0.05) 0.31*** 0.41 1.13 (0.09) 0.47 0.51 1.37 (0.48)
*Significant at the 0.05 probability level.
**Significant at the 0.01 probability level.
***Significant at the 0.001 probability level.
Asterisks indicate significant of differences from Akaike test between Model GE and GP.
Asterisks for ρӯf;ĝ indicate the significance of differences between ρӯf;ĝ from Model GE and GP from Hotelling–Williams test.



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Correlations between genomic estimated breeding values (GEBVs) from Models GE and GP and percentage of common F2 families in the best 10% for k-fold and pp-fold cross-validation.

 
Trait k-fold
pp-fold
ρGEBV(GE);GEBV(GP) Common F2 ρGEBV(GE);GEBV(GP) Common F2
Crown rust resistance 0.97 0.84 0.96 0.81
Seed yield 0.97 0.82 0.99 0.91
1000-kernel weight 0.93 0.76 0.97 0.82
Neutral detergent fiber 0.94 0.72 0.97 0.83
Fructan 0.94 0.66 0.99 0.89