Olive cultivation is affected by a wide range of biotic constraints. Verticillium wilt of olive is one of the most devastating diseases affecting this woody crop, inflicting major economic losses in many areas, particularly within the Mediterranean Basin. Little is known about gene-expression changes during plant infection by Verticillium dahliae of woody plants such as olive. A complete RNA-seq transcriptomic analysis of olive tree roots was made. Trinity assembler proved to be the best option to assemble the olive and V. dahliae transcriptomes. The olive transcriptome (Oleup) consisted of 68,259 unigenes (254,252 isoforms/transcripts), and the V. dahliae transcriptome (Vedah) consisted of 37,425 unigenes (52,119 isoforms/transcripts). Most unigenes of the Oleup transcriptome corresponded to cellular processes (12,339), metabolic processes (10,974), single-organism processes (7263), and responses to stimuli (5114). As for the Vedah transcriptome, most unigenes correspond to metabolic processes (25,372), cellular processes (23,718), localization (6385), and biological regulation (4801). Differential gene-expression analysis of both transcriptomes was made at 2 and 7 d post-infection. The induced genes of both organisms during the plant-pathogen interaction were clustered in six subclusters, depending on the expression patterns during the infection. Subclusters A to C correspond to plant genes, and subcluster D to F correspond to V. dahliae genes. A relevant finding was that the differentially expressed gene (DEGs) included in subclusters B and C were highly enriched in proteolysis as well as protein-folding and biosynthesis genes. In addition, a reactive oxygen species (ROS) defense was induced first in the pathogen and later in the plant roots.