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Vadose Zone Journal : Just Published

 
 

Accepted, edited articles are published here after author proofing to provide rapid publication and better access to the newest research. Articles are compiled into issues at dl.sciencesocieties.org/publications/vzj, which includes the complete archive.

Citation | Articles posted here are considered published and may be cited by the doi.

Kato, C., T. Nishimura, H. Imoto, and T. Miyazaki. 2011. Predicting soil moisture and temperature of Andisols under a monsoon climate in Japan. Vadose Zone J. doi:10.2136/vzj2010.0054

Current issue: Vadose Zone J. 16(6)



  • SPECIAL SECTION: LYSIMETERS IN VADOSE ZONE RESEARCH

    • Peter F. Germann and Volker Prasuhn
      Viscous Flow Approach to Rapid Infiltration and Drainage in a Weighing Lysimeter

      Rapid infiltration and drainage in a free-draining weighing lysimeter are assessed with a viscous flow approach that is based on the concept of moving water films. The two parameters film thickness and specific contact area of the film per unit volume of the permeable medium together with the rate and duration of water input suffice to quantify viscous flow at the Darcy scale. The two parameters are deducible from wetting front velocities and water content variations during the passing of the film. Temporarily perching water tables at lysimeter bottoms are considered artifacts of the lysimeter method that may severely alter the biogeochemistry of the effluent. (continued)

      Core Ideas:
      • Preferential flow in a free-draining lysimeter is approached by viscous flow theory.
      • Water perching at the lysimeter bottom is assessed with viscous flow theory.
      • Viscous flow theory is applied to rewetting after exceptional drought.

      doi:10.2136/vzj2017.01.0020
      Published: June 16, 2017



    • Stewart Wuest
      Surface Effects on Water Storage under Dryland Summer Fallow: A Lysimeter Study

      Small changes in short- and long-term soil water storage can affect crop productivity in semiarid climates. To optimize tillage and residue management on silt loam soils, we compared evaporation from a range of soil surface conditions in a climate with dry summers. Sixty low-cost, low-maintenance lysimeters were constructed from 26-L buckets and installed in-ground for five summers. Three summer fallow soil management options were mimicked by packing soil uniformly to the surface, putting a loose layer of fine soil on top of the packed base, or placing a mixture of clods and fine soil on top of the base. (continued)

      Core Ideas:
      • Inexpensive lysimeters can produce precise, summer-long evaporation comparisons.
      • Surface soil density and tillage depth had small effects on evaporation.
      • Crop residue had a small effect on evaporation over long dry periods.
      • Crop residue had a substantial effect on evaporation following rain.

      doi:10.2136/vzj2016.09.0078
      Published: May 11, 2017



    • K.R. Brye, A.L.M. Daigh and R.L. McMullen
      Seasonal Effects on Leachate Quality from an Ozark Highlands Managed Grassland Using Automated, Equilibrium-Tension Lysimeters

      In regions with concentrated broiler (Gallus gallus) production, land application is a useful means of managing broiler litter (BL). However, surface and subsurface water quality issues may arise when continued annual BL application to fields occurs for extended periods. The application of manure follows seasonal guidelines for surface water quality protection. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of BL rate (0, 5.6, and 11.2 Mg litter ha−1) and season on drainage and leachate water quality over an 8-yr period (2003–2011) in the Ozark Highlands with karst geology using automated, equilibrium-tension lysimeters. (continued)

      Core Ideas:
      • Lysimeters aid subsurface water quality assessments in long-term nutrient management plots.
      • Broiler litter rates affected few leachate quality parameters during a continuous 8-yr period.
      • Leachate water quality was affected by season during a continuous 8-yr period.

      doi:10.2136/vzj2016.09.0082
      Published: March 31, 2017



    • Gurbir Singh, Gurpreet Kaur, Karl Williard, Jon Schoonover and Jasjit Kang
      Monitoring of Water and Solute Transport in the Vadose Zone: A Review

      A number of contaminants including agrochemicals (fertilizers, pesticides), heavy metals, trace elements, and pathogenic microbes along with pharmaceuticals and hormones used in animal production move through the soil and are responsible for degradation of groundwater quality. Therefore, it is essential to sample soil solution for better understanding of movement and environmental fate of various contaminants in soils. We review different soil solution extraction samplers. The soil solution samplers discussed here are: drainage lysimeter or soil column, pan lysimeter, resin bags or membranes, wick lysimeters, suction cup, and suction plate. (continued)

      Core Ideas:
      • Soil solution sampling is essential to better understand water and solute movement in soils.
      • A review of different types of soil solution samplers is provided in this paper, including: drainage lysimeter or soil column, pan lysimeter, resin bags or membranes, wick lysimeters, suction cup, and suction plate.
      • Recent developments, modifications, and recommendation criteria are provided for selecting appropriate soil solution extraction samplers.

      doi:10.2136/vzj2016.07.0058
      Published: February 2, 2017



  • SPECIAL SECTION: NONINVASIVE IMAGING OF PROCESSES IN NATURAL POROUS MEDIA

    • Sheela Katuwal, Cecilie Hermansen, Maria Knadel, Per Moldrup, Mogens H. Greve and L.W. de Jonge
      Combining X-ray Computed Tomography and Visible Near-Infrared Spectroscopy for Prediction of Soil Structural Properties

      Soil structure is a key soil property affecting a soil’s flow and transport behavior. X-ray computed tomography (CT) is increasingly used to quantify soil structure. However, the availability, cost, time, and skills required for processing are still limiting the number of soils studied. Visible near-infrared (vis-NIR) spectroscopy is a rapid analytical technique used successfully to predict various soil properties. (continued)

      Core Ideas:
      • Vis-NIR can be used for estimation of soil physical and structural properties.
      • Structural parameters are better predicted using vis-NIR than pedotransfer functions.
      • Vis-NIR can be a fast and reliable method for predicting soils’ transport behavior.

      doi:10.2136/vzj2016.06.0054
      Published: April 20, 2017



    • Sarah Smet, Erwan Plougonven, Angélique Leonard, Aurore Degré and Eléonore Beckers
      X-ray Micro-CT: How Soil Pore Space Description Can Be Altered by Image Processing
      Core Ideas:
      • Thresholding X-ray soil images influences the resulting images.
      • Prior noise reduction improves the thresholding accuracy.
      • Local and global thresholding perform similarly when prior noise reduction is applied.
      • The local threshold interval choice determines the local segmentation quality.

      doi:10.2136/vzj2016.06.0049
      Published: March 20, 2017



  • SPECIAL SECTION: SOIL VARIABILITY AND BIOGEOCHEMICAL FLUXES

    • Edoardo Martini, Ute Wollschläger, Andreas Musolff, Ulrike Werban and Steffen Zacharias
      Principal Component Analysis of the Spatiotemporal Pattern of Soil Moisture and Apparent Electrical Conductivity

      Characterizing the spatial and temporal patterns of soil properties and states such as soil moisture (θ) remains an important challenge in environmental monitoring. At the Schäfertal hillslope site, the spatial patterns of θ measured by a distributed monitoring network and those of apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) measured by electromagnetic induction were characterized based on an integrated monitoring approach, and their possible controlling factors were investigated. With this study, we aimed to quantify the factors controlling the observed spatial patterns of θ and ECa and their interrelation. A principal component analysis was used to identify patterns within a data set comprising θ measured on seven dates within one hydrological year at 40 locations (three depths each) and ECa extracted from spatial maps for the same positions and dates. (continued)

      Core Ideas:
      • PCA identified patterns within collocated time-lapse measurements of θ and ECa.
      • The factors controlling the observed spatial patterns of θ and ECa were quantified.
      • Results demonstrate the nonstationary control of the spatial pattern of θ and ECa.

      doi:10.2136/vzj2016.12.0129
      Published: May 11, 2017



  • SPECIAL SECTION: THE ROOT ZONE: SOIL PHYSICS AND BEYOND

    • Arbel Berezniak, Alon Ben-Gal, Yael Mishael and Uri Nachshon
      Manipulation of Soil Texture to Remove Salts from a Drip-Irrigated Root Zone

      Drip irrigation is a useful method for the application of low-quality water because it does not wet the foliage and limits the spread of contaminants. Nevertheless, when using water containing high levels of dissolved salts, drip irrigation may be insufficient for leaching and can lead to soil salinization. A new conceptual model was tested experimentally and numerically to examine if manipulation of the distribution of soils with different textures could promote the removal of salts from the root zone and increase leaching efficiency. The manipulated root zone consisted of a volume of coarse soil, located under a drip irrigation emitter, surrounded by finer texture soil. (continued)

      Core Ideas:
      • Root zone soil texture manipulation improved leaching efficacy for drip irrigation.
      • Manipulation consists of coarse medium, with roots within, surrounded by fine medium.
      • Capillary barrier between coarse and fine media prevents salt return to roots.
      • Study results may contribute to the practice of irrigation with salty water

      doi:10.2136/vzj2017.01.0019
      Published: June 16, 2017



    • Félicien Meunier, Youri Rothfuss, Thierry Bariac, Philippe Biron, Patricia Richard, Jean-Louis Durand, Valentin Couvreur, Jan Vanderborght and Mathieu Javaux
      Measuring and Modeling Hydraulic Lift of Lolium multiflorum Using Stable Water Isotopes

      This study tested a method to quantify and locate hydraulic lift (HL, defined as the passive upward water flow from wetter to dryer soil zones through the plant root system) by combining an experiment using the stable water isotope 1H2 18O as a tracer with a soil–plant water flow model. Our methodology consisted in (i) establishing the initial conditions for HL in a large rhizobox planted with Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.), (ii) labeling water in the deepest soil layer with an 18O-enriched solution, (iii) monitoring the water O isotopic composition in soil layers to find out changes in the upper layers that would reflect redistribution of 18O-enriched water from the bottom layers by the roots, and (iv) comparing the observed soil water O isotopic composition to simulation results of a three-dimensional model of water flow and isotope transport in the soil–root system. O (continued)


      doi:10.2136/vzj2016.12.0134
      Published: May 18, 2017



    • Everton Alves Rodrigues Pinheiro, Quirijn de Jong van Lier and Klaas Metselaar
      A Matric Flux Potential Approach to Assess Plant Water Availability in Two Climate Zones in Brazil

      Predicting soil water availability to plants is important for agricultural and ecological models. Models that explicitly take into account root water uptake and transpiration reduction describe the ability of soil to supply water to plants based on soil hydraulic properties that depend on soil water content. The objective of this study was to further develop an existing single-layer root water uptake model based on matric flux potential to allow for multi-layer scenarios; and to illustrate its functionality using soil hydraulic properties from layered soils from two climate zones in Brazil: a semiarid zone and a humid zone. For each soil layer, the hydraulic properties were determined by inverse modeling of laboratory evaporation experiment data available for pressure heads between −165 and −1.5 m. (continued)

      Core Ideas:
      • A multi-layer root water uptake model is developed based on matric flux potential.
      • Soil hydraulic properties from two important ecological zones in Brazil are assessed.
      • Water supplying capacity to plants is higher in semiarid than in humid zone soils.
      • Reduction of root suction below −150 m does virtually not affect water availability.

      doi:10.2136/vzj2016.09.0083
      Published: April 20, 2017



    • Mutez A. Ahmed, Mohsen Zarebanadkouki, Katayoun Ahmadi, Eva Kroener, Stanley Kostka, Anders Kaestner and Andrea Carminati
      Engineering Rhizosphere Hydraulics: Pathways to Improve Plant Adaptation to Drought

      Recent studies have drawn attention to the role of mucilage in shaping rhizosphere hydraulic properties and regulating root water uptake. During drying, mucilage keeps the rhizosphere wet and conductive, but on drying it turns hydrophobic, limiting root water uptake. In this study, we introduce the concept of rhizoligands, defined as additives that (i) rewet the rhizosphere and (ii) reduce mucilage swelling, thereby reducing the rhizosphere conductivity. We tested whether selected surfactants behaved as rhizoligands. (continued)

      Core Ideas:
      • Mucilage exudation by roots modifies the hydraulic properties of the rhizosphere.
      • Rhizoligands are surfactants that rewet the rhizosphere and reduce mucilage swelling.
      • A reduction in mucilage swelling reduces rhizosphere hydraulic conductivity.
      • By managing rhizosphere hydraulic properties, we can improve plants’ adaptation to drought.

      doi:10.2136/vzj2016.09.0090
      Published: March 20, 2017



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