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Volume 10 Issue 3, August 2011



  • SPECIAL SECTION: CRITICAL ZONE OBSERVATORIES up

    • Henry Lin, Jan W. Hopmans and Daniel deB. Richter
      Interdisciplinary Sciences in a Global Network of Critical Zone Observatories
      Critical Zone Observatories represent an opportunity for significant advances in the study of the near-surface terrestrial environment. The guest editors of this special section introduce the 14 contributions that illustrate some of these emerging efforts.
      doi:10.2136/vzj2011.0084
      Vadose Zone Journal 2011 10:781-785
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    • Roger C. Bales, Jan W. Hopmans, Anthony T. O'Geen, Matthew Meadows, Peter C. Hartsough, Peter Kirchner, Carolyn T. Hunsaker and Dylan Beaudette
      Soil Moisture Response to Snowmelt and Rainfall in a Sierra Nevada Mixed-Conifer Forest
      Catchment-scale soil-moisture and snowpack measurements show that saprolite, below the typical 1-m soil depth, provides significant water storage for the high year-round evapotranspiration observed in this productive, mountain ecosystem.
      doi:10.2136/vzj2011.0001
      Vadose Zone Journal 2011 10:786-799
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    • A. Swarowsky, R.A. Dahlgren, K.W. Tate, J.W. Hopmans and A.T. O'Geen
      Catchment-Scale Soil Water Dynamics in a Mediterranean-Type Oak Woodland
      Climate, subsurface lateral flow, streamflow, and soil moisture (100 pedons) were monitored in a headwater catchment in northern California. Results identified four seasonally dependent drivers of soil moisture status and subsequent catchment hydrology including vegetation (oak tree vs. grassland), horizon stratigraphy, aspect, and topography.
      doi:10.2136/vzj2010.0126
      Vadose Zone Journal 2011 10:800-815
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    • Chris B. Graham and Henry S. Lin
      Controls and Frequency of Preferential Flow Occurrence: A 175-Event Analysis
      A unique long-term soil moisture data set was analyzed to identify controls and frequency of vertical and lateral preferential flow. Preferential flow was shown to occur during most precipation events as a topographically dependent function of antecedent soil moisture conditions, precipitation characteristics, and storm timing factors.
      doi:10.2136/vzj2010.0119
      Vadose Zone Journal 2011 10:816-831
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    • K. Takagi and H.S. Lin
      Temporal Dynamics of Soil Moisture Spatial Variability in the Shale Hills Critical Zone Observatory
      A four-year monitoring at the Shale Hills showed that soil moisture spatial variability increased exponentially with increasing catchment-wide wetness across all measurement depths and various soil-landform units. The increase in the catchment-wide soil moisture variability coincided with the emergence of a shallow water table in the valley.
      doi:10.2136/vzj2010.0134
      Vadose Zone Journal 2011 10:832-842
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    • Brad W. Kuntz, Shira Rubin, Brian Berkowitz and Kamini Singha
      Quantifying Solute Transport at the Shale Hills Critical Zone Observatory
      We quantify solute transport in geologic media with the mobile-immobile and continuous-time random walk models. Breakthrough curves from soil cores and a field-scale tracer experiment reveal anomalous early breakthrough and long tailing. Transport is controlled by preferential flow pathways, the abundance of rock fragments, and soil weathering.
      doi:10.2136/vzj2010.0130
      Vadose Zone Journal 2011 10:843-857
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    • David P. Dethier and Dana J. Bove
      Mineralogic and Geochemical Changes from Alteration of Granitic Rocks, Boulder Creek Catchment, Colorado
      Weathering rates are relatively slow in the granitic, montane portion of the Colorado Front Range. Clay and Fe oxide mineralogy help to distinguish weathering products from alteration produced by hydrothermal activity. On hillslopes the mineralogy and geochemistry of mobile regolith reflect the composition of upslope rock materials and dustfall.
      doi:10.2136/vzj2010.0106
      Vadose Zone Journal 2011 10:858-866
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      [ Supplement 1 ] [ Supplement 2 ] [ Supplement 3 ]
    • Stefano M. Bernasconi, Andreas Bauder, Bernard Bourdon, Ivano Brunner, Else Bünemann, Iso Chris, Nicolas Derungs, Peter Edwards, Daniel Farinotti, Beat Frey, Emmanuel Frossard, Gerhard Furrer, Merle Gierga, Hans Göransson, Kathy Gülland, Frank Hagedorn, Irka Hajdas, Ruth Hindshaw, Susan Ivy-Ochs, Jan Jansa, Tobias Jonas, Mirjam Kiczka, Ruben Kretzschmar, Emmanuel Lemarchand, Jörg Luster, Jan Magnusson, Edward A.D. Mitchell, Harry Olde Venterink, Michael Plötze, Ben Reynolds, Rienk H. Smittenberg, Manfred Stähli, Federica Tamburini, Edward T. Tipper, Lukas Wacker, Monika Welc, Jan G. Wiederhold, Josef Zeyer, Stefan Zimmermann and Anita Zumsteg
      Chemical and Biological Gradients along the Damma Glacier Soil Chronosequence, Switzerland
      This study describes the main features of the Damma glacier Critical Zone Observatory and its 150-year long soil chronosequence. We focus on early soil- and ecosystem genesis and document the rapid biological evolution and its influence on the chemistry of the soils and on chemical weathering.
      doi:10.2136/vzj2010.0129
      Vadose Zone Journal 2011 10:867-883
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      [ Supplement 1 ]
    • Jon Chorover, Peter A. Troch, Craig Rasmussen, Paul D. Brooks, Jon D. Pelletier, David D. Breshears, Travis E. Huxman, Shirley A. Kurc, Kathleen A. Lohse, Jennifer C. McIntosh, Thomas Meixner, Marcel G. Schaap, Marcy E. Litvak, Julia Perdrial, Adrian Harpold and Matej Durcik
      How Water, Carbon, and Energy Drive Critical Zone Evolution: The Jemez–Santa Catalina Critical Zone Observatory
      The Jemez River Basin – Santa Catalina Mountains Critical Zone Observatory is being designed to enable interdisciplinary Earth surface process studies of the roles of climate and lithology in the co-evolution of ecosystems, soils and landforms in the semi-arid Southwest.
      doi:10.2136/vzj2010.0132
      Vadose Zone Journal 2011 10:884-899
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    • Mark W. Williams, Rebecca T. Barnes, Jordan N. Parman, Michele Freppaz and Eran Hood
      Stream Water Chemistry along an Elevational Gradient from the Continental Divide to the Foothills of the Rocky Mountains
      Analysis of water draining headwater catchments from the foothills to the Continental Divide of the Colorado Front Range show that the rugged topography drives unique biogeochemical processes, low-elevation basins are closer to N-saturation than previously thought, and that a space-for-time substitution is warranted at the snow/rain transition.
      doi:10.2136/vzj2010.0131
      Vadose Zone Journal 2011 10:900-914
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    • K.M. Befus, A.F. Sheehan, M. Leopold, S.P. Anderson and R.S. Anderson
      Seismic Constraints on Critical Zone Architecture, Boulder Creek Watershed, Front Range, Colorado
      Seismic refraction surveys were used to characterize subsurface (0–20 m) critical zone structure in two variably eroded catchments. These geophysical snapshots show greater depth to fresh rock both on north-facing slopes in a steadily eroding catchment and in the headwaters of a catchment that has undergone recent fluvial incision at its base.
      doi:10.2136/vzj2010.0108
      Vadose Zone Journal 2011 10:915-927
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    • Lixin Jin, Danielle M. Andrews, George H. Holmes, Henry Lin and Susan L. Brantley
      Opening the “Black Box”: Water Chemistry Reveals Hydrological Controls on Weathering in the Susquehanna Shale Hills Critical Zone Observatory
      The variations of water Mg concentration, δD and δO at first-order catchment reveal watershed hydrology and its controls on mineral dissolution kinetics. Three types of water are identified by age and chemistry: soil water in low- and high-flow zones, and shallow groundwater. Their relative contributions control seasonal changes in stream chemistry.
      doi:10.2136/vzj2010.0133
      Vadose Zone Journal 2011 10:928-942
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      [ Supplement 1 ]
    • Danielle M. Andrews, Henry Lin, Qing Zhu, Lixin Jin and Susan L. Brantley
      Hot Spots and Hot Moments of Dissolved Organic Carbon Export and Soil Organic Carbon Storage in the Shale Hills Catchment
      Observations from the Shale Hills CZO link landscape features and soil pore water DOC concentration and SOC storage. In this field study, we present data that captures the general link between landform units and DOC and SOC and the influence of climate variables on DOC export. The data may elucidate hot spots and hot moments of organic carbon.
      doi:10.2136/vzj2010.0149
      Vadose Zone Journal 2011 10:943-954
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    • Steffen Zacharias, Heye Bogena, Luis Samaniego, Matthias Mauder, Roland Fuß, Thomas Pütz, Mark Frenzel, Mike Schwank, Cornelia Baessler, Klaus Butterbach-Bahl, Oliver Bens, Erik Borg, Achim Brauer, Peter Dietrich, Irena Hajnsek, Gerhard Helle, Ralf Kiese, Harald Kunstmann, Stefan Klotz, Jean Charles Munch, Hans Papen, Eckart Priesack, Hans Peter Schmid, Rainer Steinbrecher, Ulrike Rosenbaum, Georg Teutsch and Harry Vereecken
      A Network of Terrestrial Environmental Observatories in Germany
      From 2008 onward, Terrestrial Environmental Observatories (TERENO), a network of observatories for integrated environmental research focusing on the impact of climate change and land use change on the terrestrial ecosystems, has been established in Germany. The TERENO research concept in general and conceptual approaches for different environmental compartments and terrestrial fluxes in particular are described and explained.
      doi:10.2136/vzj2010.0139
      Vadose Zone Journal 2011 10:955-973
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    • Steven Banwart, Stefano M. Bernasconi, Jaap Bloem, Winfried Blum, Miguel Brandao, Susan Brantley, Francois Chabaux, Christopher Duffy, Pavel Kram, Georg Lair, Lars Lundin, Nikolaos Nikolaidis, Martin Novak, Panos Panagos, Kristin Vala Ragnarsdottir, Brian Reynolds, Svetla Rousseva, Peter de Ruiter, Pauline van Gaans, Willem van Riemsdijk, Tim White and Bin Zhang
      Soil Processes and Functions in Critical Zone Observatories: Hypotheses and Experimental Design
      Critical Zone Observatories (CZOs) assess soil structure, aggregate dynamics and ecosystem services along the soil function life cycle; from parent material to productive soil profiles to degraded soils. CZOs along environmental gradients at planetary scale provide the design for future studies of soil response to specific environmental changes.
      doi:10.2136/vzj2010.0136
      Vadose Zone Journal 2011 10:974-987
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  • ORIGINAL RESEARCH up

    • Andrea Carminati, Christoph L. Schneider, Ahmad B. Moradi, Mohsen Zarebanadkouki, Doris Vetterlein, Hans-Jörg Vogel, Anke Hildebrandt, Ulrich Weller, Lennart Schüler and Sascha E. Oswald
      How the Rhizosphere May Favor Water Availability to Roots
      How does water flow from soil to roots? Theory suggests that root uptake from drying soils is controlled by the hydraulic properties of the soil near the roots, the rhizosphere. Recently, unexpected properties of the rhizosphere have been reported. We used a one-root model to investigate the effects of the rhizosphere on water availability to plants.
      doi:10.2136/vzj2010.0113
      Vadose Zone Journal 2011 10:988-998
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    • W.D. Reynolds
      Measuring Soil Hydraulic Properties Using a Cased Borehole Permeameter: Falling-Head Analysis
      Improvements were made to the accuracy and utility of the Philip (1993) falling-head borehole permeameter analysis for determining field-saturated hydraulic conductivity and sorptive number in the vadose zone. This consisted primarily of modifying the Philip flow efficiency and gravity coefficients, and by allowing for variable discharge geometry.
      doi:10.2136/vzj2010.0145
      Vadose Zone Journal 2011 10:999-1015
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    • X. Xiao, R. Horton, T. J. Sauer, J. L. Heitman and T. Ren
      Cumulative Soil Water Evaporation as a Function of Depth and Time
      Heat pulse sensors were used to measure cumulative soil water evaporation at different depths in a bare field. Results showed that heat pulse sensors were able to measure realistic soil water evaporation with depth and time during natural wetting and drying cycles.
      doi:10.2136/vzj2010.0070
      Vadose Zone Journal 2011 10:1016-1022
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    • E. Laloy, M. Javaux, M. Vanclooster, C. Roisin and C. L. Bielders
      Electrical Resistivity in a Loamy Soil: Identification of the Appropriate Pedo-Electrical Model
      Monitoring the vadose zone flow and porosity dynamics by electrical resistance tomography (ERT) requires a “pedo-electrical” function, i.e., a conductivity model for soils. Based on laboratory measurements and Markov chain Monte Carlo calibration techniques, this study investigated which model is the most appropriate for ERT applications in an unsaturated loamy soil.
      doi:10.2136/vzj2010.0095
      Vadose Zone Journal 2011 10:1023-1033
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    • Lars Christiansen, Eline B. Haarder, Allan B. Hansen, Majken C. Looms, Philip J. Binning, Dan Rosbjerg, Ole B. Andersen and Peter Bauer-Gottwein
      Calibrating Vadose Zone Models with Time-Lapse Gravity Data
      Time-lapse relative gravimetry was tested for calibrating an irrigation model through a field experiment. Parameter uncertainty was reduced the most for saturated water content, while there was also some ability to constrain the saturated hydraulic conductivity and the van Genuchten n. Cross-borehole GPR data provided a control on the gravity data.
      doi:10.2136/vzj2010.0127
      Vadose Zone Journal 2011 10:1034-1044
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    • Costantino Masciopinto and Maria Clementina Caputo
      Modeling Unsaturated–Saturated Flow and Nickel Transport in Fractured Rocks
      We couple plastic ring infiltrometer tests with time-lapse electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) to address model simulations of variably saturated flow and transport of Ni in fractures. We link tomography to the water pressure in rock by making ERT into an effective tool to reduce model uncertainties at a contaminated site (Altamura, Italy).
      doi:10.2136/vzj2010.0087
      Vadose Zone Journal 2011 10:1045-1057
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    • P. M. Jardine, T. L. Mehlhorn, W. B. Bailey, S. C. Brooks, S. Fendorf, R. W. Gentry, T. J. Phelps and J. E. Saiers
      Geochemical Processes Governing the Fate and Transport of Chromium(III) and Chromium(VI) in Soils
      Experimental and numerical results are presented for quantifying the rates and mechanisms of geochemical redox and sorption reactions that govern the migration of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) in heterogeneous subsurface environments. The research highlights the environmental significance of Cr speciation and solid phase reactivity in subsurface soil systems.
      doi:10.2136/vzj2010.0102
      Vadose Zone Journal 2011 10:1058-1070
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    • Chongyang Shen, Baoguo Li, Chao Wang, Yuanfang Huang and Yan Jin
      Surface Roughness Effect on Deposition of Nano- and Micro-Sized Colloids in Saturated Columns at Different Solution Ionic Strengths
      Effects of surface roughness on the deposition of micro- and nano-sized colloids in porous media were examined via laboratory column experiments and theoretical analysis. In this work, we provide experimental evidence and theoretical demonstration that surface roughness can increase colloid retention in both primary and secondary minima, especially at high ionic strengths.
      doi:10.2136/vzj2011.0011
      Vadose Zone Journal 2011 10:1071-1081
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    • J. Maximilian Köhne, Steffen Schlüter and Hans-Jörg Vogel
      Predicting Solute Transport in Structured Soil Using Pore Network Models
      We evaluate a new approach for predicting breakthrough curves of dissolved chemicals in intact structured soil columns using x-ray computed microtomography, image analysis, and an equivalent pore network model. The results suggest that conservative solute transport can be estimated base on a limited number of pore structure characteristics.
      doi:10.2136/vzj2010.0158
      Vadose Zone Journal 2011 10:1082-1096
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    • J. Mark Blonquist, David A. Robinson, Seth D. Humphries and Scott B. Jones
      Improved Dielectric and Electrical Conductivity Anisotropy Measurements Using TDR in Unsaturated Mica
      Hydraulic anisotropy in porous media arises from structural and textural properties, which also affect other transport processes. A parallel-plate TDR cell determined anisotropy of both dielectric and electrical conductivity measurements in unsaturated mica; peak anisotropies occurred at 50 and 75% saturation, respectively.
      doi:10.2136/vzj2010.0148
      Vadose Zone Journal 2011 10:1097-1104
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    • Yaara Rimon, Ronit Nativ and Ofer Dahan
      Vadose Zone Water Pressure Variation during Infiltration Events
      A vadose zone monitoring system for simultaneous measurement of water pressure and water content in a thick sandy formation was utilized to monitor the spatial and temporal distribution of infiltrated water within the formation. Disconnection of the vadose zone gas phase from the atmosphere during infiltration was evident in the measurements.
      doi:10.2136/vzj2010.0061
      Vadose Zone Journal 2011 10:1105-1112
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  • BOOK REVIEWS up

    • William E. Sanford
      Tracers in Hydrology
      doi:10.2136/vzj2011.0030br
      Vadose Zone Journal 2011 10:1113-1114
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    • Stanley W. Trimble
      Soil and Water Conservation Advances in the United States
      doi:10.2136/vzj2011.0033br
      Vadose Zone Journal 2011 10:1115-1115
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  • ERRATA up

    • Shao-Yiu Hsu and Markus Hilpert
      Incorporation of Dynamic Capillary Pressure into the Green–Ampt Model for Infiltration
      doi:10.2136/vzj2010.0069er
      Vadose Zone Journal 2011 10:1116-1116
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    • C. Amanda Garcia, Brian J. Andraski, David A. Stonestrom, Clay A. Cooper, Jirika Šimůnek and Stephen W. Wheatcraft
      Interacting Vegetative and Thermal Contributions to Water Movement in Desert Soil
      doi:10.2136/vzj2010.0023er
      Vadose Zone Journal 2011 10:1117-1117
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