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Volume 11 Issue 1, February 2012



  • SPECIAL SECTION: SOIL ARCHITECTURE AND FUNCTION up

    • L.W. de Jonge, P. Moldrup, A.L. Vendelboe, M. Tuller and D. Wildenschild
      Soil Architecture and Physicochemical Functions: An Introduction
      The guest editors introduce the special section on Soil Architecture and Function. The contributions explore soil as Earth's life support system and how we must attain a deeper understanding by improving and linking measurement, visualization, and modeling of soil structure (architecture) and physical, chemical, and biological processes in different porous media systems and at different scales.
      doi:10.2136/vzj2011.0185
      Vadose Zone Journal 2012 11.
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    • D.A. Robinson, N. Hockley, E. Dominati, I. Lebron, K.M. Scow, B. Reynolds, B.A. Emmett, A.M. Keith, L.W. de Jonge, P. Schjønning, P. Moldrup, S.B. Jones and M. Tuller
      Natural Capital, Ecosystem Services, and Soil Change: Why Soil Science Must Embrace an Ecosystems Approach
      The Earth's mantle of soil is a critical part of the planet's life support system, but how can the value of the soil resource be quantified or conveyed? In this article we articulate why it is important for soil science to engage an ecosystems approach, with valuation posed in the context of natural capital, ecosystem services and soil change.
      doi:10.2136/vzj2011.0051
      Vadose Zone Journal 2012 11.
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    • Scott B. Jones, Dani Or, Robert Heinse and Markus Tuller
      Beyond Earth: Designing Root Zone Environments for Reduced Gravity Conditions
      Extending Earth life beyond our planet requires understanding of how biological species such as plants and microbes would grow under reduced gravity. For porous medium-based rooting environments alteration of the physical properties may be the key to successful plant growth in addition to application of appropriate water management approaches.
      doi:10.2136/vzj2011.0081
      Vadose Zone Journal 2012 11.
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    • Andreas H. Kristensen, Chisato Hosoi, Kaj Henriksen, Per Loll and Per Moldrup
      Vadose Zone Biodegradation of Benzene Vapors in Repacked and Undisturbed Soil Cores
      Effects of soil structure on biodegradation of hydrocarbon vapors in unsaturated soil were evaluated through microcosm experiments with intact soil cores. Measured biodegradation rates were related to (i) soil pretreatment (undisturbed or sieved/repacked samples); and (ii) gas transport properties in terms of gas diffusivity of the soils cores.
      doi:10.2136/vzj2011.0034
      Vadose Zone Journal 2012 11.
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    • Shiromi Himalika Dissanayaka, Shoichiro Hamamoto, Ken Kawamoto, Toshiko Komatsu and Per Moldrup
      Thermal Properties of Peaty Soils: Effects of Liquid-Phase Impedance Factor and Shrinkage
      Accurate predictions of thermal properties for peaty soils are vital in assessing methane emission. In this study, thermal properties of peaty soils at different saturation levels were measured. Developed models as functions of volumetric water and solid contents performed well in predicting thermal conductivity and heat capacity for peaty soils.
      doi:10.2136/vzj2011.0092
      Vadose Zone Journal 2012 11.
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    • Shoichiro Hamamoto, Per Moldrup, Ken Kawamoto and Toshiko Komatsu
      Organic Matter Fraction Dependent Model for Predicting the Gas Diffusion Coefficient in Variably Saturated Soils
      Soil organic matter is a key contributor to the formation of soil pore structure. The soil-gas diffusion coefficient was modeled with consideration of organic matter content and its apparent effect on the percolation threshold and diffusion path tortuosity. The model was developed and verified with measurements on a wide variety of soils.
      doi:10.2136/vzj2011.0065
      Vadose Zone Journal 2012 11.
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    • Shaphal Subedi, Ken Kawamoto, Lakmal Jayarathna, Meththika Vithanage, Per Moldrup, Lis Wollesen de Jonge and Toshiko Komatsu
      Characterizing Time-Dependent Contact Angles for Sands Hydrophobized with Oleic and Stearic Acids
      Application of capillary barriers in wet regions can be problematic due to loss of water-impermeable properties under high-frequency precipitation. In this study, water drop contact angles were examined for sands treated with hydrophobic agents. Results revealed a good potential for using water repellency techniques in capillary barrier systems.
      doi:10.2136/vzj2011.0055
      Vadose Zone Journal 2012 11.
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    • W. Markgraf, F. Moreno and R. Horn
      Quantification of Microstructural Changes in Salorthidic Fluvaquents Using Rheological and Particle Charge Techniques
      The influence of phosphogypsum fertilizer on the soil microstructure of a reclaimed Salorthidic Fluvaquent was quantified and compared with soil from a natural sodic-saline site. Rheological and particle charge density techniques were applied, leading to a better understanding of particle-to-particle effects in a Na–Ca-dominated system.
      doi:10.2136/vzj2011.0061
      Vadose Zone Journal 2012 11.
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    • Ramaprasad Kulkarni, Markus Tuller, Wolfgang Fink and Dorthe Wildenschild
      Three-Dimensional Multiphase Segmentation of X-Ray CT Data of Porous Materials Using a Bayesian Markov Random Field Framework
      A new method for segmentation of X-ray computed tomography (CT) data of porous materials amenable to true three-dimensional multiphase processing was developed and evaluated. The employed Bayesian Markov random field framework has distinct advantages over commonly applied segmentation algorithms as it can handle any number of phases present in the CT dataset.
      doi:10.2136/vzj2011.0082
      Vadose Zone Journal 2012 11.
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    • Stéphane Sammartino, Eric Michel and Yvan Capowiez
      A Novel Method to Visualize and Characterize Preferential Flow in Undisturbed Soil Cores by Using Multislice Helical CT
      This study shows how widely available medical CTs and ad hoc image processing techniques allow imaging of preferential flow in undisturbed soil. The spatially resolved time-lapse information (macropore water content, fraction of active macroporosity) gathered with this method provide new insight into preferential flow mechanisms.
      doi:10.2136/vzj2011.0100
      Vadose Zone Journal 2012 11.
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    • Annika Badorreck, Horst H. Gerke and Reinhard F. Hüttl
      Effects of Ground-Dwelling Beetle Burrows on Infiltration Patterns and Pore Structure of Initial Soil Surfaces
      Preferential flow observed using neutron radiography and x-ray computed tomography analyses manifests the effect of moss vegetation and burrowing activity of ground beetles on initial soil development. These flora and fauna affect soil development by modification of pore structure and infiltrability through pathways that allow greater soil accessibility.
      doi:10.2136/vzj2011.0109
      Vadose Zone Journal 2012 11.
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    • Geoffroy Séré, Stéphanie Ouvrard, Vincent Magnenet, Benjamin Pey, Jean Louis Morel and Christophe Schwartz
      Predictability of the Evolution of the Soil Structure using Water Flow Modeling for a Constructed Technosol
      Soil hydrodynamics can be used to predict the pedogenic evolution of soil architecture. Technosols are valuable experimental models because their pedogenesis are fast and intense. The comparison between the monitoring of water flow in a technosol and its modeling with HYDRUS-1D highlighted an evolution of hydraulic parameters with time.
      doi:10.2136/vzj2011.0069
      Vadose Zone Journal 2012 11.
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    • T.K.K. Chamindu Deepagoda, Per Moldrup, Per Schjønning, Ken Kawamoto, Toshiko Komatsu and Lis Wollesen de Jonge
      Variable Pore Connectivity Model Linking Gas Diffusivity and Air-Phase Tortuosity to Soil Matric Potential
      The connectivity of gas-filled pores is a major determinant in the diffusion of gases in porous media. This paper presents a model to predict the connectivity factor that appears in equations of effective diffusivity. The model relates the connectivity factor to soil matric potential and therefore to the unique pore structures of different soils.
      doi:10.2136/vzj2011.0096
      Vadose Zone Journal 2012 11.
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    • A. L. Vendelboe, P. Moldrup, P. Schjønning, D. J. Oyedele, Y. Jin, K. M. Scow and L. W. de Jonge
      Colloid Release from Soil Aggregates: Application of Laser Diffraction
      The water-dispersible colloids (WDC) content of a range of soil types was measured using a laser diffraction method. Despite the differences in soil type, the WDC content was strongly correlated to the total clay content. This is very useful for assessing the risk of colloid-facilitated contaminant transport to tile drains and groundwater.
      doi:10.2136/vzj2011.0070
      Vadose Zone Journal 2012 11.
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    • Charmaine Q. Qiu, Jie Han, Hui Gao, Lian-Ping Wang and Yan Jin
      Pore-Scale Numerical and Experimental Investigation of Colloid Retention at the Secondary Energy Minimum
      Pore-scale model simulations of colloid trajectories were used to systematically study the retention of colloids at the secondary energy minimum. The main conclusion is that the colloid retention rate depends nonlinearly on the solution ionic strength and flow speed, consistent with mechanistic explanations and experimental observations.
      doi:10.2136/vzj2011.0071
      Vadose Zone Journal 2012 11.
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    • Chongyang Shen, Lian-Ping Wang, Baoguo Li, Yuanfang Huang and Yan Jin
      Role of Surface Roughness in Chemical Detachment of Colloids Deposited at Primary Energy Minima
      Effects of surface roughness on detachment of colloids deposited at primary minima were examined via experiments and theoretical analysis. We provide theoretical demonstration and experimental evidence that colloids initially attached at tips of nanoscale protruding asperities will detach from a rough surface at low solution ionic strengths.
      doi:10.2136/vzj2011.0057
      Vadose Zone Journal 2012 11.
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      [ Supplement 1 ]
    • P. Schjønning, L.W. de Jonge, L.J. Munkholm, P. Moldrup, B.T. Christensen and J.E. Olesen
      Clay Dispersibility and Soil Friability—Testing the Soil Clay-to-Carbon Saturation Concept
      Based on analyses using soils with gradients in soil texture and carbon management, the concept of clay saturation with organic carbon (OC) as a predictor of soil physical behavior was confirmed for clay dispersibility. A clay/OC ratio of 10 and a (clay + fine silt)/OC ratio of 20 may serve as corresponding thresholds for clay dispersibility.
      doi:10.2136/vzj2011.0067
      Vadose Zone Journal 2012 11.
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  • REVIEW AND ANALYSIS up

    • John H. Kim and Robert B. Jackson
      A Global Analysis of Groundwater Recharge for Vegetation, Climate, and Soils
      Vegetation exerts a strong control over the hydrological cycle, including groundwater recharge, which provides water for many human and natural communities. Understanding the effect of vegetation on recharge globally within the relevant physical constraints such as climate and soil will help land-use decisions for sustainable groundwater management.
      doi:10.2136/vzj2011.0021RA
      Vadose Zone Journal 2012 11.
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      unlockOPEN ACCESS
  • ORIGINAL RESEARCH up

    • Toshihiro Sakaki, Anuchit Limsuwat, Abdullah Cihan, Christophe C. Frippiat and Tissa H. Illangasekare
      Water Retention in a Coarse Soil Pocket under Wetting and Drainage Cycles
      Significant coupling of water and air flow was observed in a pocket of coarse soil embedded in a background fine soil subjected to drainage and wetting. The laboratory experiments were simulated numerically. Only a two-phase flow approach was able to reproduce the key features of the experimental results.
      doi:10.2136/vzj2011.0028
      Vadose Zone Journal 2012 11.
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    • Yosuke Yamakawa, Ken'ichirou Kosugi, Shin'ya Katsura, Naoya Masaoka and Takahisa Mizuyama
      Spatial and Temporal Monitoring of Water Content in Weathered Granitic Bedrock Using Electrical Resistivity Imaging
      Time-lapse electrical resistivity imaging was tested for qualitative monitoring of the spatial and temporal distribution of water content in a hillslope composed of a soil mantle overlying weathered granitic bedrock. The resistivity data were compared to measurements of water table elevation, water tension of soil and bedrock, and hillslope runoff.
      doi:10.2136/vzj2011.0029
      Vadose Zone Journal 2012 11.
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    • G. Kramers, N.M. Holden, F. Brennan, S. Green and K.G. Richards
      Water Content and Soil Type Effects on Accelerated Leaching after Slurry Application
      Switching manure application to soil from summer to spring has been linked to increased contaminant transport. Manure application timing was found to significantly affect tracer transport particularly on fine-textured, wet soils. Phosphorus transport via preferential flow could be a potential issue particularly on wet fine-textured soils.
      doi:10.2136/vzj2011.0059
      Vadose Zone Journal 2012 11.
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    • C. Stumpp, W. Stichler, M. Kandolf and J. Šimůnek
      Effects of Land Cover and Fertilization Method on Water Flow and Solute Transport in Five Lysimeters: A Long-Term Study Using Stable Water Isotopes
      We investigated differences in water flow and solute transport due to different land use in five long-term lysimeter studies. Stable water isotopes were key parameters providing insight into mean transit times and effective water contents. Both land use and nonuniform infiltration patterns during snow melt impacted water flow and solute transport.
      doi:10.2136/vzj2011.0075
      Vadose Zone Journal 2012 11.
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    • D. Jougnot, N. Linde, A. Revil and C. Doussan
      Derivation of Soil-Specific Streaming Potential Electrical Parameters from Hydrodynamic Characteristics of Partially Saturated Soils
      Two new approaches are presented to predict electrical potential differences arising from water fluxes in the vadose zone. Soil-specific expressions for the streaming current are derived using either the water retention or relative permeability function. The new relationships explain laboratory and lysimeter data better than previously proposed models.
      doi:10.2136/vzj2011.0086
      Vadose Zone Journal 2012 11.
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    • Radka Kodešová, Karel Němeček, Vít Kodeš and Anna Žigová
      Using Dye Tracer for Visualization of Preferential Flow at Macro- and Microscales
      The multi-modal character of preferential flow, which occurred at various scales, was documented at macro- and micro-scale and in different magnifications. It consisted of water flow through gravitational pores and fractures, inter-aggregate flow, flow in large capillary pores, and nonequilibrium flow within the hierarchically composed soil matrix.
      doi:10.2136/vzj2011.0088
      Vadose Zone Journal 2012 11.
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    • M. Mostafa and P.J. Van Geel
      Validation of a Relative Permeability Model for Bioclogging in Unsaturated Soils
      The multi-modal character of preferential flow, which occurred at various scales, was documented at macro- and microscale and in different magnifications. It consisted of water flow through gravitational pores and fractures, interaggregate flow, flow in large capillary pores, and nonequilibrium flow within the hierarchically composed soil matrix.
      doi:10.2136/vzj2011.0044
      Vadose Zone Journal 2012 11.
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    • Masoud Noshadi, Hossein Parvizi and Ali Reza Sepaskhah
      Evaluation of Different Methods for Measuring Field Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity under High and Low Water Table
      In this study, Guelph permeameter (GP), auger hole (AH), inverted auger hole, and saturated Porchet methods were compared with the representative saturated hydraulic conductivity in a drainage system as a reference value. The results showed that the AH and GP methods are suitable in regions with high and low water tables, respectively.
      doi:10.2136/vzj2011.0005
      Vadose Zone Journal 2012 11.
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  • TECHNICAL NOTES up

    • M. Oostrom, T.W. Wietsma, C.E. Strickland, V.L. Freedman and M.J. Truex
      Sensor and Numerical Simulator Evaluation for Porous Medium Desiccation and Rewetting at the Intermediate Laboratory Scale
      An intermediate-scale experiment involving desiccation and rewetting of a porous medium was conducted to evaluate the response of several soil moisture sensors and the performance of the multiphase flow simulator STOMP. This paper shows which sensors successfully measured drying and wetting responses, and reports on the STOMP performance.
      doi:10.2136/vzj2011.0089
      Vadose Zone Journal 2012 11.
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    • Andrew D. Parsekian, Lee Slater and Karina V. R. Schäfer
      Small Root Biomass Effect on the Dielectric Properties of Soil
      Ground-penetrating radar was used to observe bulk dielectric permittivity in dry sand with varying root contents. Although physical properties changed as expected under laboratory conditions, the results of this experiment indicate that volumetric root content estimates in the field would be challenging in the presence of environmental variables.
      doi:10.2136/vzj2011.0049
      Vadose Zone Journal 2012 11.
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  • ERRATUM up

    • Sabine Goldberg, Seunghun Hyun and Linda S. Lee
      Chemical Modeling of As(III, V) and Se(IV, VI) Adsorption by Soils Surrounding Ash Disposal Facilities
      doi:10.2136/vzj2008.0013er
      Vadose Zone Journal 2012 11.
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