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Volume 6 Issue 3, August 2007



  • REVIEWS AND ANALYSES up

    • Sabine Goldberg, Louise J. Criscenti, David R. Turner, James A. Davis and Kirk J. Cantrell
      Adsorption–Desorption Processes in Subsurface Reactive Transport Modeling
      This review attempts to summarize the current literature on adsorption-desorption reaction mechanisms, models for adsorption-desorption reactions at the molecular scale, empirical representations of adsorption-desorption equilibria, and field-scale applications of subsurface reactive transport modeling with adsorption-desorption equilibria.
      doi:10.2136/vzj2006.0085
      Vadose Zone Journal 2007 6:407-435
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    • M. Oostrom, J. H. Dane and T. W. Wietsma
      A Review of Multidimensional, Multifluid, Intermediate-Scale Experiments: Flow Behavior, Saturation Imaging, and Tracer Detection and Quantification
      A review is presented of flow cell experiments involving characterization of NAPL flow behavior using imaging and detection/quantification with tracers. The techniques used for NAPL saturation mapping include photon-attenuation and photographic methods. Recommendations for future research at this laboratory scale are provided.
      doi:10.2136/vzj2006.0178
      Vadose Zone Journal 2007 6:610-637
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  • ORIGINAL RESEARCH up

    • J. Bachmann, M. Deurer and G. Arye
      Modeling Water Movement in Heterogeneous Water-Repellent Soil: 1. Development of a Contact Angle–Dependent Water-Retention Model
      We present a general model for describing the movement of water in soils with variable pore-surface properties. It applies for wettable, subcritically water repellent, and hydrophobic soils. A microscopic water-content and time-dependent contact angle is coupled with the macroscopic water retention function. Few additional parameters are needed.
      doi:10.2136/vzj2006.0060
      Vadose Zone Journal 2007 6:436-445
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    • M. Deurer and J. Bachmann
      Modeling Water Movement in Heterogeneous Water-Repellent Soil: 2. A Conceptual Numerical Simulation
      We test a general model for describing water in texturally heterogeneous soils exhibiting various degrees of water repellency by simulating a drying-rewetting cycle in soils. For the hydrophobic soils we predict distribution, fingering and redistribution zones. With rewetting the fingers slowly widen and dissipate.
      doi:10.2136/vzj2006.0061
      Vadose Zone Journal 2007 6:446-457
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    • R. J. Lenhard and P. Meakin
      Water Behavior in Layered Porous Media with Discrete Flow Channels: Results of a Large-Scale Experiment
      An experiment focusing on water movement into discrete flow channels was conducted. A steady or quasi-periodic “leaking” of water occurred, contrary to capillary break theory. This work demonstrates that surprising and complex behavior can occur in relatively simple and well-characterized systems with scales on the order of several meters.
      doi:10.2136/vzj2006.0125
      Vadose Zone Journal 2007 6:458-470
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    • F. Fagerlund, T.H. Illangasekare and A. Niemi
      Nonaqueous-Phase Liquid Infiltration and Immobilization in Heterogeneous Media: 1. Experimental Methods and Two-Layered Reference Case
      A methodology to dynamically measure nonaqueous-phase liquid (NAPL) migration in space and time using a multiple-energy x-ray attenuation technique is presented. Flow and entrapment of NAPL in a saturated layered formation were studied, and methods of characterizing entrapment architecture were tested. The saturation history dependence of entrapment was also demonstrated.
      doi:10.2136/vzj2006.0171
      Vadose Zone Journal 2007 6:471-482
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    • F. Fagerlund, T.H. Illangasekare and A. Niemi
      Nonaqueous-Phase Liquid Infiltration and Immobilization in Heterogeneous Media: 2. Application to Stochastically Heterogeneous Formations
      Spatially correlated random permeability fields were carefully built in a saturated 2D sand tank creating systems of complex but well-known heterogeneity. Non-aqueous phase liquid migration and entrapment at capillary barriers and by snap-off processes were studied taking precise measurements of fluid saturations in space and time using an x-ray-attenuation technique.
      doi:10.2136/vzj2006.0172
      Vadose Zone Journal 2007 6:483-495
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    • Edwin P. Weeks and Peter B. McMahon
      Nitrous Oxide Fluxes from Cultivated Areas and Rangeland: U.S. High Plains
      Depth profiles of chlorofluorocarbon concentrations in soil gas at nine sites of irrigated cropland and rangeland in the High Plains were used to calibrate a gas-phase diffusive transport model. Vadose-zone measurements of nitrous oxide, a significant greenhouse gas, were used with the calibrated model to estimate its flux to the atmosphere from the various sites.
      doi:10.2136/vzj2006.0164
      Vadose Zone Journal 2007 6:496-510
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    • Sikiru A. Amidu and John A. Dunbar
      Geoelectric Studies of Seasonal Wetting and Drying of a Texas Vertisol
      We examined the seasonal dynamics of moisture in a Vertisol using the electrical-resistivity geophysical method. Results show that there are three soil moisture regimes and that seasonal hydrodynamics of the soil are influenced by microrelief variability and cracks. Implications of the results to agricultural management and soil taxonomy are discussed.
      doi:10.2136/vzj2007.0005
      Vadose Zone Journal 2007 6:511-523
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    • Vahedberdi Sheikh and E. Emiel van Loon
      Comparing Performance and Parameterization of a One-Dimensional Unsaturated Zone Model across Scales
      Does aggregation level matter when only considering soil moisture? Can we derive a meta-model to scale model performance or effective parameters? Are some model performance criteria more scale independent than others? These questions were addressed by applying the SWAP model to observations from a small catchment in the Netherlands.
      doi:10.2136/vzj2006.0077
      Vadose Zone Journal 2007 6:638-650
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    • Horst H. Gerke, Jaromir Dusek, Tomas Vogel and J. Maximilian Köhne
      Two-Dimensional Dual-Permeability Analyses of a Bromide Tracer Experiment on a Tile-Drained Field
      This paper describes an improved two-dimensional numerical analysis of preferential water and bromide movement toward tile drains in structured glacial till soil. Dual- as compared with single-permeability model results indicate the importance of soil surface boundary conditions and plot- and field-scale mixing in addition to local nonequilibrium effects.
      doi:10.2136/vzj2007.0033
      Vadose Zone Journal 2007 6:651-667
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    • Sven Altfelder, Wilhelmus H. M. Duijnisveld, Thilo Streck, Gunnar Meyenburg and Jens Utermann
      Quantifying the Influence of Uncertainty and Variability on Groundwater Risk Assessment for Trace Elements
      A parallel soil column model quantifying trace element transport at the field scale for situations where site data are scarce is described. In combination with a two-dimensional Monte Carlo approach, it allows to distinguish effects of (irreducible) variability and (reducible) uncertainty on predicted concentrations.
      doi:10.2136/vzj2006.0148
      Vadose Zone Journal 2007 6:668-678
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  • COMMENTS up

    • Tom Schröder, M. Javaux, J. Vanderborght and H. Vereecken
      Comment on “Root Water Extraction and Limiting Soil Hydraulic Conditions Estimated by Numerical Simulation”
      doi:10.2136/vzj2007.0036
      Vadose Zone Journal 2007 6:524-526
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    • Quirijn de Jong van Lier, Klaas Metselaar and Jos C. van Dam
      Response to “Comment on ‘Root Water Extraction and Limiting Soil Hydraulic Conditions Estimated by Numerical Simulation’”
      doi:10.2136/vzj2007.0042L
      Vadose Zone Journal 2007 6:527-528
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  • ERRATUM up

    • Carlos M. Regalado, Axel Ritter and Rosa M. Rodríguez-González
      Performance of the Commercial WET Capacitance Sensor as Compared with Time Domain Reflectometry in Volcanic Soils
      doi:10.2136/vzj2006.0138er
      Vadose Zone Journal 2007 6:529-529
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  • SPECIAL SECTION: GROUNDWATER RESOURCES ASSESSMENT UNDER THE PRESSURES OF HUMANITY AND CLIMATE CHANGE up

    • Timothy R. Green, Makoto Taniguchi and Henk Kooi
      Potential Impacts of Climate Change and Human Activity on Subsurface Water Resources
      The guest editors introduce the special section Groundwater Resources Assessment under the Pressures of Humanity and Climate Change (GRAPHIC) derived from the conference by the same name that was held in Kyoto, Japan in 2006. Sponsored by UNESCO's International Hydrological Program, GRAPHIC is a collaborative effort and umbrella for international research and education. The conference was hosted by the Research Institute for Humanity and Nature, Japan.
      doi:10.2136/vzj2007.0098
      Vadose Zone Journal 2007 6:531-532
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    • Jason J. Gurdak, Randall T. Hanson, Peter B. McMahon, Breton W. Bruce, John E. McCray, Geoffrey D. Thyne and Robert C. Reedy
      Climate Variability Controls on Unsaturated Water and Chemical Movement, High Plains Aquifer, USA
      Spectral analysis of hydrologic time series and reconstruction of frequency components reveal that unsaturated water and chemical fluxes, including recharge, respond to interannual to multidecadal climate cycles, particularly the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. Using this conceptualization, a method is presented to estimate climate-varying recharge.
      doi:10.2136/vzj2006.0087
      Vadose Zone Journal 2007 6:533-547
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    • Fumi Sugita and Kazuro Nakane
      Combined Effects of Rainfall Patterns and Porous Media Properties on Nitrate Leaching
      Effects of rainfall patterns on nitrate leaching in homogeneous and heterogeneous porous media were investigated. Nitrate leaches only under extreme rainfall in both media, whereas considerable degradation and large spreading are observed only in heterogeneous porous media. The increase of nitrate leaching by potential climate change is suggested.
      doi:10.2136/vzj2006.0095
      Vadose Zone Journal 2007 6:548-553
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    • Lieke van Roosmalen, Britt S. B. Christensen and Torben O. Sonnenborg
      Regional Differences in Climate Change Impacts on Groundwater and Stream Discharge in Denmark
      Regional climate model data are used in an integrated hydrological model to study the effects of future climate change. The main focus of this study is groundwater recharge, although the changes in stream discharge are also presented. The results show a clear influence of the geology and climatology of the study areas on the simulated effects.
      doi:10.2136/vzj2006.0093
      Vadose Zone Journal 2007 6:554-571
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    • Jeroen Aerts, Ralph Lasage, Wisse Beets, Hans de Moel, Gideon Mutiso, Sam Mutiso and Arjen de Vries
      Robustness of Sand Storage Dams under Climate Change
      Climate change will have an impact on potential evaporation through an increase in average temperature. The goals of this work were to examine the storage capacity of sand dams, process historical climate data and future climate change scenarios, and model both current water availability and future water availability under climate change.
      doi:10.2136/vzj2006.0097
      Vadose Zone Journal 2007 6:572-580
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    • Ian White, Tony Falkland, Taboia Metutera, Eita Metai, Marc Overmars, Pascal Perez and Anne Dray
      Climatic and Human Influences on Groundwater in Low Atolls
      The quality and quantity of atoll groundwater are susceptible to ENSO events and human settlement. Infiltration galleries minimize salinisation and provide estimates of the hydraulic conductivity of unconsolidated coral sediments. Strategies for protecting groundwater and increasing resilience of island communities to climate change are discussed.
      doi:10.2136/vzj2006.0092
      Vadose Zone Journal 2007 6:581-590
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    • Makoto Taniguchi, Takeshi Uemura and Karen Jago-on
      Combined Effects of Urbanization and Global Warming on Subsurface Temperature in Four Asian Cities
      Subsurface termperatures in Asian cities were analyzed to evaluate the effects of surface warming due to urbanization. The magnitude of surface warming and the depth apart from the the geothermal gradient show the magnitude of heat island and elapsed time from the start of surface warming.
      doi:10.2136/vzj2006.0094
      Vadose Zone Journal 2007 6:591-596
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    • Timothy R. Green, Bryson C. Bates, Stephen P. Charles and P. Mick Fleming
      Physically Based Simulation of Potential Effects of Carbon Dioxide–Altered Climates on Groundwater Recharge
      A new method for simulating double carbon dioxide climate change effects on dynamic equilibrium vegetation and soil-water regimes affecting groundwater recharge was demonstrated for two sites in Australia with Mediterranean and subtropical climates. Potential changes in recharge versus rainfall were highly nonlinear and varied with the soil and vegetation.
      doi:10.2136/vzj2006.0099
      Vadose Zone Journal 2007 6:597-609
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  • TECHNICAL NOTES up

    • H. H. Liu, Y. Q. Zhang and F. J. Molz
      Scale Dependence of the Effective Matrix Diffusion Coefficient: Some Analytical Results
      We develop analytical expressions for the effective matrix diffusion coefficient for two simple fracture-matrix systems and demonstrate that heterogeneities in the rock matrix at different scales may contribute to the scale dependence of the effective matrix diffusion coefficient.
      doi:10.2136/vzj2006.0140
      Vadose Zone Journal 2007 6:679-683
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  • BOOK REVIEWS up

    • Steven F. Carle
      Geostatistical Analysis of Compositional Data
      Edited by Vera Pawlowsky-Glahn and Ricardo Olea. International Association for Mathematical Geology, Studies in Mathematical Geology No. 7. Oxford University Press, New York. 2004. Hardcover, 304 pp. ISBN 0-19-517166-7.
      doi:10.2136/vzj2007.0063br
      Vadose Zone Journal 2007 6:684-685
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