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Volume 9 Issue 1, February 2010



  • SPECIAL SECTION: ARTIFICIAL DRAINAGE up

    • Bernd Lennartz, Bärbel Tiemeyer, Gerrit de Rooij and František Doležal
      Artificially Drained Catchments—From Monitoring Studies towards Management Approaches
      Artificial drainage is a widespread measure used to improve the conditions of agricultural soils to increase crop yield. The guest editors introduce the diverse subjects of the eight papers in Special Section: Artificial Drainage and explore the challenges associated with drainage systems, progress in their management, and the priorities for future research.
      doi:10.2136/vzj2009.0149
      Vadose Zone Journal 2010 9:1-3
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    • Angela H. Simco, Daniel B. Stephens, Kenneth Calhoun and Deborah A. Stephens
      Historic Irrigation and Drainage at Priestley Farm by Joseph Elkington and William Smith
      Two hundred years ago, some of the most influential men in England visited a Bedfordshire farm to witness innovations in irrigation and drainage conducted at fields attended to by two of England's most famous land drainers, William “Strata” Smith and Joseph Elkington. Investigations.
      doi:10.2136/vzj2008.0148
      Vadose Zone Journal 2010 9:4-13
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    • Bärbel Tiemeyer, Petra Kahle and Bernd Lennartz
      Designing Monitoring Programs for Artificially Drained Catchments
      Monitoring programs are crucial for the correct evaluation of environmental impacts resulting from practices such as artificial drainage. We investigated spatial and temporal aspects as well as sampling and load calculation methods to improve the design of monitoring programs for catchments that are fast reacting and prone to nitrate losses.
      doi:10.2136/vzj2008.0181
      Vadose Zone Journal 2010 9:14-24
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    • Ype van der Velde, Joachim C. Rozemeijer, Gerrit H. de Rooij, Frans C. van Geer and Hans Peter Broers
      Field-Scale Measurements for Separation of Catchment Discharge into Flow Route Contributions
      To reduce surface water pollution from agricultural sources quantification of processes that generate nutrient transport is necessary. We related field-scale flow route discharges to catchment-scale nitrate transport. The findings of this study stress the importance of a nested measurement setup when we want to evaluate pollution-reducing measures.
      doi:10.2136/vzj2008.0141
      Vadose Zone Journal 2010 9:25-35
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    • H. Henine, Y. Nédélec, B. Augeard, F. Birgand, C. Chaumont, P. Ribstein and C. Kao
      Effect of Pipe Pressurization on the Discharge of a Tile Drainage System
      Pipe pressurization within agricultural subsurface drainage systems may have important consequences on hydrological events. Experimental data, including flow rate in a collector pipe together with water table levels show that infiltrated water can be temporarily stored within the soil profile, introducing a delay of peak discharge downstream.
      doi:10.2136/vzj2008.0152
      Vadose Zone Journal 2010 9:36-42
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    • Srinivasulu Ale, Laura C. Bowling, Jane R. Frankenberger, Sylvie M. Brouder and Eileen J. Kladivko
      Climate Variability and Drain Spacing Influence on Drainage Water Management System Operation
      Strategies for operation of drainage water management systems in Drummer soil in Indiana were evaluated for multiple drain spacings (10–35 m) based on the analysis of a 92-yr climatic record using the DRAINMOD model. The potential impact of these strategies on corn yield and drain flow reduction in the dry, wet, cool, and warm years was assessed.
      doi:10.2136/vzj2008.0170
      Vadose Zone Journal 2010 9:43-52
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    • Zhiming Qi and Matthew J. Helmers
      Soil Water Dynamics under Winter Rye Cover Crop in Central Iowa
      Soil water dynamic components under a winter rye cover crop have not been specifically addressed in the U.S. Midwest. This study showed the effectiveness of winter rye on drainage reduction and soil moisture in central Iowa. The evapotranspiration of rye in May was estimated by a soil water dynamic analysis.
      doi:10.2136/vzj2008.0163
      Vadose Zone Journal 2010 9:53-60
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    • V. Nangia, P. H. Gowda, D. J. Mulla and G. R. Sands
      Modeling Impacts of Tile Drain Spacing and Depth on Nitrate-Nitrogen Losses
      Nitrate-N losses were modeled in response to changes in the spacing and depth of subsurface tile drainage systems during 1999 to 2003 from two corn-soybean fields in south-central Minnesota. Reductions in nitrate-N losses were possible by decreasing the depth or increasing the spacing of tile drains without significant reductions in crop yield.
      doi:10.2136/vzj2008.0158
      Vadose Zone Journal 2010 9:61-72
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    • E. Passeport, J. Tournebize, S. Jankowfsky, B. Prömse, C. Chaumont, Y. Coquet and J. Lange
      Artificial Wetland and Forest Buffer Zone: Hydraulic and Tracer Characterization
      The hydrological functioning of an artificial wetland and a forest zone used to decrease pesticide pollution from an artificially drained watershed is described. Water volumes and flow rates entering these two systems and each system's internal hydrology were studied by statistically analyzing flow data and conducting a tracer experiment.
      doi:10.2136/vzj2008.0164
      Vadose Zone Journal 2010 9:73-84
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  • ORIGINAL RESEARCH up

    • A. T. Corey, W. D. Kemper and J. H. Dane
      Revised Model for Molecular Diffusion and Advection
      A model of combined molecular diffusion and advection is presented. Molecular diffusion is defined as a constituent flux in response to a kinetic energy gradient rather than a flux relative to the mean flux of a fluid mixture. This interpretation is consistent with the laws of probability applied to molecular motion and is verified by experimental data.
      doi:10.2136/vzj2009.0082
      Vadose Zone Journal 2010 9:85-94
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    • N. Loes M. B. van Schaik, R. F. A. Hendriks and J. C. van Dam
      Parameterization of Macropore Flow Using Dye-Tracer Infiltration Patterns in the SWAP Model
      Macropore parameters are often determined indirectly using outflow or discharge data, giving little insight into soil moisture distribution. We used infiltration patterns and a physically based model for macropore parameterization. The results were validated with soil moisture, rainfall and discharge data and compared to a model without macropores.
      doi:10.2136/vzj2009.0031
      Vadose Zone Journal 2010 9:95-106
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    • D. Yilmaz, L. Lassabatere, R. Angulo-Jaramillo, D. Deneele and M. Legret
      Hydrodynamic Characterization of Basic Oxygen Furnace Slag through an Adapted BEST Method
      Our objective was to characterize the unsaturated hydraulic properties of basic oxygen furnace (BOF) slags that are byproducts that could be used in urban works and can be considered as technosoils. The BOF slags were applied in an experimental road structure and studied for 1 yr through water infiltration experiments. Data inversion analysis through an adapted BEST method provided the unsaturated hydraulic properties useful for transfer modeling. Results pointed at strong initial spatial variability and a significant evolution with time. This was clearly related to clogging of the BOF slag porosity due to carbonation.
      doi:10.2136/vzj2009.0039
      Vadose Zone Journal 2010 9:107-116
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    • F. A. Monteiro Santos, J. Triantafilis, K. E. Bruzgulis and J. A. E. Roe
      Inversion of Multiconfiguration Electromagnetic (DUALEM-421) Profiling Data Using a One-Dimensional Laterally Constrained Algorithm
      Apparent electrical conductivity has been used widely to map the spatial variation of average soil properties. A commonly used approach to discern lateral and vertical changes is the use of electromagnetic inversion techniques. We present a one-dimensional laterally constrained algorithm to invert multiconfiguration electromagnetic data.
      doi:10.2136/vzj2009.0088
      Vadose Zone Journal 2010 9:117-125
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    • J. Benavente, I. Vadillo, F. Carrasco, A. Soler, C. Liñán and F. Moral
      Air Carbon Dioxide Contents in the Vadose Zone of a Mediterranean Karst
      A high concentration source of carbon dioxide (nearly 60,000 microliters/L) has been observed in the vadose zone of a Mediterranean carbonated aquifer in the transition between the vadose zone and the water table level. Analysis with carbon isotope values of carbon dioxide determined microbial decomposition of the high dissolved organic fraction in the groundwater (20-30 mg/L) as the main process.
      doi:10.2136/vzj2009.0027
      Vadose Zone Journal 2010 9:126-136
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    • Andreas H. Kristensen, Kaj Henriksen, Lars Mortensen, Kate M. Scow and Per Moldrup
      Soil Physical Constraints on Intrinsic Biodegradation of Petroleum Vapors in a Layered Subsurface
      The potential for aerobic biodegradation of petroleum vapors in a 16-m-deep vadose zone was evaluated based on laboratory experiments and in situ tests. Biodegradation in microcosms was found to be related to soil physical conditions in the field. The effects of soil layering, soil texture, and gas transport properties are discussed.
      doi:10.2136/vzj2009.0010
      Vadose Zone Journal 2010 9:137-147
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    • E. Bloem, F. A. N. Hogervorst, G. H. de Rooij and F. Stagnitti
      Variable-Suction Multicompartment Samplers to Measure Spatiotemporal Unsaturated Water and Solute Fluxes
      A new design is presented for a variable-suction multicompartment percolation sampler that can be buried below an undisturbed soil volume in the field. Three prototypes were tested in laboratory and field experiments.
      doi:10.2136/vzj2008.0111
      Vadose Zone Journal 2010 9:148-159
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    • Matthias J. Staub, Jean-Paul Laurent, Jean-Pierre Gourc and Christophe Morra
      Applicability of Time Domain Reflectometry Water Content Measurements in Municipal Solid Waste
      Time domain reflectometry probes were calibrated for the use in municipal solid waste and their sensitivity on several parameters was investigated. Results illustrate that, despite some material effects, an efficient monitoring of moisture content changes was enabled and calibration equations are proposed for the studied typical waste material.
      doi:10.2136/vzj2009.0046
      Vadose Zone Journal 2010 9:160-171
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    • Kathleen M. Smits, Toshihiro Sakaki, Anuchit Limsuwat and Tissa H. Illangasekare
      Thermal Conductivity of Sands under Varying Moisture and Porosity in Drainage–Wetting Cycles
      The effect of grain size, moisture content, porosity, and wetting-drainage processes on the thermal conductivity of sands was investigated experimentally. Relations for thermal conductivity-moisture content were found to be distinct within three moisture ranges, and dependent on grain size and porosity but not wetting-drainage processes.
      doi:10.2136/vzj2009.0095
      Vadose Zone Journal 2010 9:172-180
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  • TECHNICAL NOTES up

    • U. Rosenbaum, J.A. Huisman, A. Weuthen, H. Vereecken and H.R. Bogena
      Sensor-to-Sensor Variability of the ECH 2 O EC-5, TE, and 5TE Sensors in Dielectric Liquids
      The sensor-to-sensor variability for the low-budget ECH2O EC-5, TE, and 5TE soil water content sensors was verified with a calibration procedure using dielectric standard liquids. We demonstrated that a sensor-specific calibration increases the accuracy of the soil water content measurement.
      doi:10.2136/vzj2009.0036
      Vadose Zone Journal 2010 9:181-186
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    • Pavel Iassonov and Markus Tuller
      Application of Segmentation for Correction of Intensity Bias in X-Ray Computed Tomography Images
      X-ray computed tomography yields high-resolution visualizations of pore structures and interfaces. For quantitative analysis, segmentation is applied to separate solid and fluid phases. This process is complicated by scanning and reconstruction artifacts. A computationally efficient approach to numerically correct for image artifacts was developed.
      doi:10.2136/vzj2009.0042
      Vadose Zone Journal 2010 9:187-191
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  • COMMENTS up

    • Hu Zhou, Edmund Perfect, Baoguo Li and Yizhong Lu
      Comments on “On the Physical Properties of Apparent Two-Phase Fractal Porous Media”
      doi:10.2136/vzj2009.0048
      Vadose Zone Journal 2010 9:192-193
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    • Boming Yu, Jianchao Cai and Mingqing Zou
      Response to “Comments on the ‘On the Physical Properties of Apparent Two-Phase Fractal Porous Medium’”
      doi:10.2136/vzj2009.0057
      Vadose Zone Journal 2010 9:194-195
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  • BOOK REVIEWS up

    • William J. Likos
      Experimental Unsaturated Soil Mechanics
      doi:10.2136/vzj2009.0115br
      Vadose Zone Journal 2010 9:196-197
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    • Jim J. Wang
      The Chemistry of Soils, Second Edition
      doi:10.2136/vzj2009.0141br
      Vadose Zone Journal 2010 9:198-198
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    • Alan J. Franzluebbers
      Principles of Soil Conservation and Management
      doi:10.2136/vzj2009.0110br
      Vadose Zone Journal 2010 9:199-200
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    • Ray Murray
      Criminal and Environmental Soil Forensics
      doi:10.2136/vzj2009.0062br
      Vadose Zone Journal 2010 9:201-201
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    • Melanie Mayes
      Soil Carbon Sequestration and the Greenhouse Effect, Second Edition
      doi:10.2136/vzj2009.0126br
      Vadose Zone Journal 2010 9:202-203
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  • THANKS TO REVIEWERS up


    • Thanks to Our 2009 Reviewers
      doi:10.2136/vzj2010.2040
      Vadose Zone Journal 2010 9:204-206
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